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Articles by L.U.S. Ezeanyika
Total Records ( 9 ) for L.U.S. Ezeanyika
  A.C. Cemaluk Egbuonu and L.U.S. Ezeanyika
  Female gender is an independent risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MES) (a cluster of features indicating metabolic disorders), that is associated with kidney damage, insulin resistance and a significant reduction in Nitric Oxide (NO), a major metabolite of L-arginine (ARG). This study aimed to ascertain the effect of ARG on selected markers of MES related to kidney damage in female Wistar albino rats. Two groups of rats were given 3 mL kg-1 body weight (b.wt.) of distilled water, DW and 60 mg kg-1 b.wt. of ARG, respectively as control and treated groups. Exposing the female rats to ARG caused a significant decrease (p<0.01) in the concentration of urea (6.34±0.23 mg/100 mL), creatinine (4.41±0.50 mg/100 mL) and albumin (14.30±0.15 mg/100 mL) in rats’ serum. It decreased (p<0.01) creatinine clearance (1.78±0.27 mL min-1) but elicited a significant increase (p<0.01) in the albumin:creatinine ratio (3.27±0.32) of the rats. Improved kidney histology as indicated by lots of renal corpuscles, was observed in the ARG-fed group while correlation analysis showed that urea correlated positively (r = 0.01) with creatinine, albumin and creatinine clearance, but negatively (r = 0.01) with Albumin: Creatinine ratio. The study suggests that L-arginine ingestion could improve these renal function markers and perhaps, metabolic syndrome related to kidney dysfunction, in female Wistar rats. The effect could be concerted and significant as indicated by the histomorpholgy and correlation results. Thus, with the abundance of ARG in nuts, including walnut, cashew nut, ground nut and even coconut, the implication of this study in the prevention and management of MES in, especially female, animals is noteworthy hence, deserve follow up, probably in humans.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu , C.A. Ezeokonkwo , P.M. Ejikeme , O. Obidoa and L.U.S. Ezeanyika
  The present study is aimed at substantiating whether monosodium glutamate, MSG, could induce toxic effects at an appreciably lower dose and to examine the possible role of arginine, ARG, on such MSG-induced effects. Thus, MSG at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 body weight was administered to adult male Wistar rats by oral intubation. Treatment was daily and lasted for 28 days. The MSG treatment significantly (p<0.05) decreased the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (71.97%) but increased the activities of the serum total acid phosphatase (TAP) (6222.80%) and the serum Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST) (66.86%) and the serum aspartate aminotransferase-to-alanine aminotransferase (AST-to-ALT) ratio (56.59%). Arginine (ARG) (20 mg kg-1 b.wt.) co-administered with MSG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity (90.47%) representing a decrease of only 18.50% relative to the MSG-treatment alone, but increased the serum Total Acid Phosphatase (TAP) activity (11119.27%), the serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activity (133.35%) and the serum aspartate aminotransferase-to-alanine aminotransferase (AST-to-ALT) ratio (147.25%). The results showed that MSG at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 b.wt. probably affected the synthesis of the above enzymes and that ARG at 20 mg kg-1 b.wt. potentiated the MSG-induced effects. Thus, ARG at 20 mg kg-1 b.wt. may significantly exacerbate the possible MSG-induced adverse effect on the prostate and major organs with high metabolic activities especially the liver.
  I. Yunusa and L.U.S. Ezeanyika
  Studies of dietary intake and status were collected from across Nigeria by literature search and personal contact with some country experts. Studies that satisfied a defined set of criteria; published, based on individual intakes and adequate information provided to enable its quality to be assessed were selected for further analysis. Twenty seven articles from four agroecological zones of the country were included and from them data on energy, protein, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and trace elements were collected. Data on energy intakes were given in a large number of studies, but information was very limited for some micronutrients. Studies gave data on food patterns peculiar to their cultural and/or regional characteristics. A variety of collection methods were used, there was no consistency in the ages of adolescents studied or the age cut-off points, but some studies gave data for males and females separately at all ages. None of the study article was nationally representative and most of the remainders were regional. Apart from anthropometric measurements, status data were also collected from the four regions. Males had higher energy intakes than females. Variations in energy intakes and other nutrients related to energy intakes were not apparent across the regions within the country. In addition, most of the dietary studies did not rely on food composition tables for the conversion of food intake data to estimated nutrient intakes as there is no universally accepted food composition table across the country with a definite analytical methods, units and modes of expression. This can make comparisons between regions difficult and inaccurate. There are insufficient data on status to be able to be able to draw any conclusions about the nutritional quality of the diets of adolescents.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu and L.U.S. Ezeanyika
  Metabolic syndrome (Mes) was associated with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. In particular, endothelial dysfunction was associated with a significant reduction in nitric oxide, a metabolite of L-arginine (Arg). Insulin resistance occurs following the failure of insulin to maintain glucose balance or regulate appetite via signaling in the brain. Thus, this study investigated the influence of Arg on some biochemical markers of Mes associated with the brain function and on the brain histology of female Wistar rats. Two groups of rats (n = 8) were exposed to a single dose of 60 mg kg-1 b.wt. of Arg and 3 ml kg-1 b.wt. of distilled water respectively as treated and control groups. Exposure was per oral (p.o) for twenty eight consecutive days. Exposure to Arg evoked a significant increase (p<0.01) in aspartate amino transferase (AST) activity (24.95±0.10 IU L-1) and ammonium ion (NH4+) concentration (39.58±0.16 μg mL-1) in the rats’ serum. It increased (p<0.01) the aspartate amino transferase to alanine amino transferase (AST:ALT) ratio (0.37±0.01) of the rats. Brain section of Arg-treated rats revealed degeneration, characterized by necrosis, oedema and reduction of astrocytes. AST:ALT ratio had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.01) with AST activity and NH4+ concentration. The results suggest Arg-induced adverse influence on the studied markers of Mes associated with the brain function. Hence, exposure to Arg may impair the brain function and possibly, worsen Mes related to brain function of the rats.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu , A.E. Ogbu and L.U.S. Ezeanyika
  The study aimed to ascertain the effect of esculetin (Esc) on some liver and prostate function markers of male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 6). Groups A, B and C were administered with 6.0, 12.0 and 24.0 mg kg-1 b.wt. of esculetin, respectively. Groups D and E were administered with 0.2 mL of the vehicle control (10% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)) and 0.2 mL of the normal control (distilled water (DW)), respectively. Administration was per oral after every 24 h for 28 days. On comparison with the controls, serum enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), activities of the esculetin-fed rats decreased in a dose dependent manner. The decrease was significant (p<0.05) except that of ALP activity (79.12±11.82 IU L-1) that was not significant (p>0.05) at the 6.0 mg kg-1 dose level. Esculetin exposure in the rats induced a dose dependent decrease in Total Acid Phosphatase (TACP) and Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PACP) activities of the rats serum. However, the decrease was not significant (p>0.05) except that of PACP activity (0.76±0.28 IU L-1) that decreased sgnificantly (p<0.05) in the group treated with 24 mg kg-1 b.wt. of esculetin. The results of this study suggest that esculetin caused a dose dependent improvement of these markers. Thus, repeated exposure to esculetin may not impair the functional capacity of the associated organs, particularly the liver and prostate, of the male rats, irrespective of dose.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu , L.U.S. Ezeanyika and I.I. Ijeh
  Metabolic Syndrome (MES), a cluster of metabolic disorders, is pandemic and more prevalent in females. It was associated with inflammation, liver damage and reduced nitric oxide concentration. Since L-arginine (ARG) may enhance nitric oxide synthesis, this study investigated the effect of ARG on the liver histology and selected serum markers of MES related to inflammation and liver damage. Two groups (n = 8) of female Wistar albino rats were exposed to 60 mg kg-1 b. wt. of ARG and 3 mL kg-1 b.wt. of distilled water, respectively as treated and control groups. Per oral exposure to ARG for twenty eight days caused a non-significant increase (p>0.05) in the neutrophils count (22.50±10.35%, representing 38.46%) but a decrease (p>0.05) in the lymphocytes count (77.50±10.35%, representing 8.82%) and in the total bilirubin concentration (0.40±0.19 mg/100 mL, representing 52.38%) of the rats, suggesting non-treatment related influence on these parameters. However, the exposure elicited a significant decrease (p<0.01) in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity (66.47±0.37 IU L-1, representing 18.55%) and in the total White Blood Cell (WBC) count (2.73±0.75x109 L-1, representing 43.24%), suggesting absence of inflammation and liver damage. ALT had a significant positive correlation with WBC (r = 0.01), while the liver histology revealed possible benefit in the ARG-fed rats, seeminlgly confirming benefit on these markers of inflammation and liver damage that could improve related MES features in the rats. Further studies using ARG rich nuts are required to harness insight gained from this study.
  C.A. Anosike , O. Obidoa and L.U.S. Ezeanyika
  The effect of dietary incorporation of soybean, a high isoflavone-containing legume, on serum marker enzymes, lipid profile and relative organ weights of wistar rats was studied. Male wistar rats weighing between 100-200g were divided into four groups. Group 1 was fed normal rat chow while groups 2, 3 and 4 had normal rat chow supplemented with 10, 25 and 50% soybean, respectively, for fourteen days. At the end of the feeding experiment, the rats were euthanised by chloroform anesthesia and the serum obtained were used for the biochemical assays. In all cases, the rats had free access to feed and water. The results of the study showed that high intake of soybean (25% and 50%) in the diet significantly (P<0.05) reduced the level of the serum enzymes; glutamate – oxaloacetate and glutamate pyruvate transaminases, alkaline and acid phosphatases and serum glucose. Supplementation of soybean at these levels also increased serum vitamin C. Insignificant decreases were found in the liver, kidney and testis relative weights, serum low density lipoprotein and lipid peroxidation products (Malondialdehyde) levels. Soybean incorporation at the 50% level significantly reduced total serum cholesterol. These findings support the reports of the beneficial and health promoting effects of soybean.
  A.C.C. Egbuonu , L.U.S. Ezeanyika , P.M. Ejikeme and O. Obidoa
  Adult male Wistar rats were fed with arginine (ARG) (60 mg kg¯1 b.wt.), glutamate (GLU) (90 mg kg¯1 b.wt.), monosodium glutamate (MSG) (15 mg kg¯1 b.wt.), ARG+GLU (60:90 mg kg¯1 b.wt.) or ARG+MSG (60:15 mg kg¯1 b.wt.). The feeding was by oral intubation and was daily for 28 days. The aim was to investigate possible alterations in the serum biochemistry and liver histology induced by ARG, GLU or MSG either alone or in such combinations as ARG+GLU or ARG+MSG. After 28 days oral treatment, rats treated with ARG, GLU or MSG alone significantly (p<0.05) increased the serum alkaline aminotransferase (ALT) activity, whereas rats co-treated with ARG and either GLU or MSG decreased (p<0.05) the serum ALT activity. In comparison with the control, the other treatment groups elicited a significant quantitative increase in the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and the computed AST:ALT ratio but, the observed increase in the ARG-treated group was consistently lower relative to the other groups. Liver sections of rats from the various treatment groups showed varying degrees of focally diffuse (random) hepatocellular necrosis. On the whole, the study suggests that sub-acute daily oral treatment of male Wistar rats with ARG, GLU or MSG alone or ARG together with GLU or MSG could possibly impair their physiological functions as evidenced in the significant alterations in the serum biochemistry and liver histology of this study. The results are considerably significant going by the possible inadvertent abuse of ARG, GLU and MSG alone or together in diets and drugs.
  C.S. Ezeonu , P.A.C. Egbuna , L.U.S. Ezeanyika , C.G. Nkwonta and N.D. Idoko
  The antihepatotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against CCl4 (10 mL kg-1 body weight) were investigated. Total 7 groups of rats were used in the investigation with alternative methods of administration of ginger extract and CCl4 both at 24 h intervals as well as simultaneous administrations. All the administration methods involved injection of the substances intraperitoneally. Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) and Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT) decreased significantly (p<0.05) when ginger ethanolic extract was administered first (1000 mg kg-1 body weight) followed by CCl4 24 h later. Injection of CCl4 followed by ethanolic ginger extract 24 h later gave a reduction in the serum enzyme but not as much as when ginger extract was first administered. The same result above was also obtained for lipid peroxidation production. Protein synthesis was not affected by the various groups although, CCl4 and ethanolic extract of ginger caused increase in serum protein which did not show any significant increase (p>0.05). Inorganic phosphate was increased by both CCl4 and ethanolic extract administration. Fraction D was shown to have more hepatoprotective effect than even the ethanolic extract itself. Administration of ginger extract and CCl4 simultaneously had the least hepatoprotective effect. Thus, preventive intraperitoneal administration of ginger ethanolic extract before liver injury had the highest efficacy against hepatotoxic induction using CCl4.
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