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Articles by L.S. Mulungu
Total Records ( 6 ) for L.S. Mulungu
  R.N. Misangu , A. Azmio , S.O.W.M. Reuben , P.M. Kusolwa and L.S. Mulungu
  A screen house experiment was conducted at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro Tanzania, to discern the relationships among components of yield in Bambara groundnut V. subterranea genotypes using path coefficient analysis. The trial was conducted during January-May, 2000. Nine genotypes of Bambara groundnut landraces were laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with four replications. Results showed that leaf length was the only vegetative variable which had a significant and positive correlation (r = 0.50*) with yield. Path coefficient analysis shows that this correlation was mainly attributed to the independent (direct) contribution (0.393) of leaf length on yield though the latter was far less than its respective residual effect. Number of pods per plant were highly correlated (r = 0.83**) with seed yield and the direct effect on yield (0.998) was relatively higher than the residual. On the other hand, the number of days to flowering were negatively correlated with yield (r = -0.41*) and this correlation was predominantly attributed to its negative direct effect (-0.461). The latter was also higher than its respective residual effect. Petiole length was negatively correlated with 100 seed weight (r = -0.41*) and this was largely due to its negative direct effect (-0.310) on seed size. This direct effect was, however, far less than its residual effect. Plant height and leaf length were both positively correlated with number of pods produced. Their correlations were largely due to their direct effects on number of pods per plant although these direct effects were less than their respective residual effects. Although 100 seed weight had a non significant correlation with seed yield (r = 0.16), its independent effect (0.541) on yield was higher than the residual effect of 0.299. However, the indirect effect of seed size on yield through number of pods (-0.381) reduced the direct effect to a low and non significant correlation with yield. The present study shows that number of pods interacted negatively with 100 seed weight in influencing yield of Bambara groundnut. Taller plants, longer leaves and more podding are variables which are related to higher yields of Bambara groundnut under screen house conditions.
  L.S. Mulungu , V.D. Ngowo , R.H. Makundi , A.W. Massawe and H. Leirs
  Rodent management programs in Tanzania have been reactive and did not consider the population ecology of the target species. The strategies used to manage rodents were probably most suited to managing low-density rodent populations and were selected to solve localised rodent problems in certain areas. These included bounty schemes, burning of homes and vegetation, trapping and poisoning. In recent years, new developments in rodent pest management include a system designed to provide early warning of potent damage. An understanding of the population processes that give rise to rodent pest’s problems provides the framework for evaluating the causes and solutions. Population models for predicting outbreaks have been developed. These have incorporated simulations and aspects of economics in the implementation of control strategies. Simulation based on Bioeconomics models have shown that the most economically rewarding strategies differ significantly from current practices of symptomatic treatment when severe rodent damage is noticed in the fields. Therefore, shifting from symptomatic practices and controlling rodents on a calendar basis can substantially improve the economic conditions for the majority of maize producers in Tanzania.
  L.S. Mulungu , G. Lupenza , S.O.W.M. Reuben and R.N. Misangu
  This study was conducted in order to evaluate leaf powder botanical products of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus macrorhyncha F. Muell), pawpaw (Carica papaya L.), neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and lantana (Lantana camara L.) against the infestation of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamays (L.) on stored maize grains. These botanicals were compared with synthetic chemical (Actellic Super Dust) and without insecticides application as controls. All tested plant products performed well in the reduction of live insects during maize storage as compared to the no insecticide application. However, pawpaw leaf powder was the most effective in reducing the number of live insects. Similarly, number of damaged maize seeds was relatively less in grains treated with pawpaw leaf powder. This also reflects on the weight loss where the maize grains treated with pawpaw leaf powder were lowest. The weight loss was also less in grains treated with neem and eucalyptus leaf powders. This study suggests that pawpaw, neem and eucalyptus leaf powders can be used as good alternatives to synthetic pesticides against S. zeamays.
  R.N. Misangu , M.S. Chipungahelo , S.O.W.M. Reuben and L.S. Mulungu
  A study to investigate the effect of sowing bruichid-damaged bean seeds on germination, plant development and grain yield was conducted at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania during the year 2000 cropping season. Unperforated and bruchids damaged seeds with one to four holes were planted in plastic pots and placed in the glasshouse. Germination, plant development and subsequent grain yield were compared using a randomized complete block design. Results indicate that planting bruchid-damaged seeds significantly reduced germination and plant development, negatively impacted bean yield components, increased fungal disease (powdery mildew) severity and reduced seed quality.
  L.S. Mulungu , B. Ndilahomba , C.J. Nyange , M.W. Mwatawala , J.K. Mwalilino , C.C. Joseph and C.A. Mgina
  Studies to evaluate the effectiveness of natural protectants in controlling Prostephanus truncatus and Sitophilus zeamays in stored maize were conducted in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The treatments consisted of natural protectants viz., pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium), Neorautanenia mitis, N. mitis with talc as carrier, Gnidia kraussiana powder and untreated control. Actellic Super Dust was included as a standard insecticide control. The data collected included the number of dead and live insects, number of damaged and undamaged maize seeds, number of holes per seed, percentage damage and weight loss. Seeds treated with Actellic super dust, pyrethrum and G. kraussiana powder had significantly lower number of live insects and damaged seeds as compared to untreated control. Among the natural protectants, pyrethrum and G. kraussiana powder showed good potential in protecting maize grain against P. truncatus and S. zeamays. Positive and significant correlations between the numbers of live insects with number of damaged seeds, percentage damaged seeds, average number of holes per seed and weight loss were observed.
  L.S. Mulungu , M.R. Jilala , M.W. Mwatawala and J.K. Mwalilino
  The aim of this Study was to determine the effect of Larger Grain Borer (Prostephanus truncatus Horn) on stored paddy rice. The study was conducted at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science and Production Laboratory from November, 2005 to March, 2006. Rice varieties TXD 85, TXD 88, TXD 220 and TXD 306 were used. The experimental design was Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. Ten live P. truncatus were introduced into bottles containing 3000 seeds of paddy rice and allowed to feed. Data collected were number of live insects, damaged and undamaged seeds, percentage damage, weight loss and germination rates of infested seeds. Results showed that there was a significant (p≤0.05) difference in number of live P. truncatus among paddy rice varieties at the end of storage time. Varieties TXD 85 and TXD 88 had fewer live P. truncatus than TXD 220 and TXD 306. However, results show that rice varieties did not differ significantly (p≥0.05) weight loss. Significant (p≤0.05) effect of P. truncatus on percentage germination rate of paddy rice seeds was observed. The infested paddy rice seeds showed low germination rates compared to uninfested seeds. Infested variety of TXD 306 had relatively lowest germination rate compared to other infested varieties indicating relatively resistant to a pest.
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