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Articles by L.P. Zhang
Total Records ( 3 ) for L.P. Zhang
  X.R. Wang , Y. Liu , L.P. Zhang , X.J. Wang and J.P. Wu
  The epidural retia mirabile is an arterial network formed by many of anastomotic branches from adjacent arteries for supplying blood to the brain in artiodactyla and plays a vital role in regulating cerebral blood flow. The purpose of this work was to compare anatomical differences of the epidural retia mirabile between the yak and cattle and to analyse their blood supply characteristics and provide a morphological basis for further research on the plateau adaptability of the yak. The vascular casts of the epidural retia mirabile were yielded on head specimens of 12 yaks (obtained from Qinghai China) and 10 cattle (obtained in Gansu China) by the corrosion casting technique. Their morphological features and arterial diameters were compared and analyzed using the methods of comparative anatomy. The general arrangements of the epidural retia mirabile in the yak were similar to that seen in cattle and mainly composed of the anterior portion, posterior portion, basi-occipital arterial plexus and anterior V-shaped extension. Middle width of the anterior epidural retia mirabile was more extensive and the posterior joint section was more developed and there were more abundant anterior anastomotic branches and communicating rami in the epidural retia mirabile of the yak. Moreover, the distribution ratios of blood flow from the maxillary artery entering the anterior epidural retia mirabile were 33.12% and 30.42% in the yak and in cattle, respectively. Our results indicated that the yak has more developed epidural retia mirabile. Its anatomical peculiarity perhaps is an adaptive characteristic of supplying blood system to the brain and which would help to buffer and regulate cerebral blood flow better so as to meet the cerebral oxygen demand of the yak in plateau areas.
  L. Yang , L.P. Zhang , J.P. Wu , M.A. Brown , B. Liu , B.Y. Ma and L. Wang
  Metallothionein-III (MT-III) as a new member of the Metallothionein (MT) family has specific physiological effects different from known MT-I and MT-II. In this study, the yak MT-III gene coding region was amplified and cloned by RT-PCR from brain tissue of yak using YMT-IIISP1 and YMT-IIISP2 as specific primers. The isolated cDNA sequence of MT-III was 207 bp in length (Genbank Accession, NO, DQ323545) and was subjected to BLASTn searching in NCBI. Results of the search indicate that nucleotide sequences of yak share 98, 97, 96, 92, 91, 90, 89, 88 and 86% sequence similarity with cattle, milk goat, hair goat, pig, sheep, chimpanzee, human, dog and house mouse, respectively. Comparing homologies of MT-III sequences with MT-I and MT-II in yak, we found 69 and 67% homologies, respectively. The MT-III protein was composed of 68 amino acids, including 19 cysteines, similar to the number of cysteines of sheep but not human and mouse which lack the conserved ninth cysteine and have no aromatic amino acids. There were conserved motifs of MTs, such as C-X-C, C-C-X-C-C, C-X-X-C and KKS and specific motifs including MDPE, CPCP in MT-III. This conservation of motifs suggests a conservation of MT-III in molecular evolution. The MT-III in yak had no signal peptide and represented a form of cytoplasmic protein similar to MT-I/II. There were few sheets in secondary protein structures, obvious helices in 39-46th AA and mainly irregular curling in the 2D-structure of MT-III protein. The lack of the conserved ninth cysteine in yak MT-III merits further research.
  H.L. Wan , L.P. Zhang , M.A. Brown , X.J. Wu , J.H. Wang , L. Yang , Z. Deng and J.P. Wu
  Meat from yak (Bos grunniens) is a primary staple in diets of people in western China. Yak meat has low-fat content, high protein and good amino acid and fatty acid profiles. However, meat from yak may be less tender than meat from Bos taurus cattle. Gannan Black yaks (n = 181) were used to investigate the effects of age at harvest and aging days on meat quality characteristics of M. longissimus dorsi. Yaks were harvested at 2, 3 and 4 year of age and muscles of each yak carcass were aged for 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 or 21 days at 4°C and frozen at -20°C until analyzed. Age at harvest affected shear force and percentage fat, protein and moisture (p<0.05). Aging days affected shear force, retort cooking loss, pressing loss, moist cooking loss, pH, percentage fat, moisture (p<0.01) and protein (p<0.10). There were interactions between aging days and age at harvest for shear force, moisture and protein (p<0.01). Aging days appeared to have a greater effect on shear force than age at harvest and tended to moderate the age at harvest effect on shear force. When cooked in retortable bags, cooking loss decreased until 3 days postmortem after which it remained relatively constant. When steam cooked, meat aged 7 days had the lowest cooking loss (p<0.05). Pressing loss decreased until 3 days postmortem then remained relatively constant. After thawing, pH decreased during the 21 days period of postmortem aging with the greatest decline in the first 24 h (6.68-5.73 from 2-24 h postmortem). Results suggest that aging yak meat 7 days is sufficient for acceptable tenderness and meat quality.
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