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Articles by L.B. Tekdek
Total Records ( 10 ) for L.B. Tekdek
  M.Y. Sugun , H.M. Kazeem , N.D.G. Ibrahim , N.M. Useh , L.B. Tekdek and I. Ajogi
  Blackleg is an economically important disease of cattle, sheep and other ruminants which is endemic in both developed and developing countries of the world. Toxins and neuraminidase produced by Clostridium chauvoei have been reported to play significant complimentary roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, the pathological changes caused by exogenous toxins produced following the culture of C. chauvoei at 24 and 48 h respectively were investigated and it was observed that the 24 h toxin produced more severe pathological changes, compared to the 48 h toxin. Necrosis was observed in the tissues examined, both grossly and histopathologically and was attributed probably to impaired cellular (mitochondrial) respiration. It was concluded that, although toxins produced by C. chauvoei play an important role in the mechanisms of blackleg, the role of leukotrienes (C4, D4 and E4), cytokines (interleukin-1, IL-1; tumour necrosis factor- , TNF- ), platelet-activating factor, interferon, complement fragments (anaphylatoxins C5a and C3a), prostaglandins and neuraminidase in the pathogenesis of C. chauvoei infection in mice need to be thoroughly investigated.
  A.K. Mohammed , A.K.B. Sackey , L.B. Tekdek and J.O. Gefu
  A three year study on the effects of season, ambient temperature and sex on rectal temperature, pulse and respiratory rates (adaptive physiological parameters) of adult one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) was conducted in Shika-Zaria a sub-humid zone of Nigeria. The average rectal Temperature (T), Pulse (P) and Respiratory (R) rates commonly referred to as ‘TPR’ were 37.0 C, 48.6 beats min 1 and 15.5 breaths min 1 respectively while the ranges were 35.0-40.0 C, 30-57 beats min 1 and 8-23 breaths min 1 respectively. Average TPR values were significantly lower (p< 0.05) in the cold season than in the dry season and no significant difference (p>0.05) between the sexes. The ambient temperature significantly (p< 0.01) influenced the TPR readings with lower values during morning hours than the afternoon hours.
  S.J. Sambo , N.D.G. Ibrahim , K.A.N. Esievo , J.O. Hambolu , M.S. Makoshi and L.B. Tekdek
  A total of 226 goats were carefully examined during a survey to determine the prevalence of besnoitiosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria. At ante mortem examination no signs of besnoitiosis were observed in any of the goats and no gross lesions of the disease occurred on their skins examined, after slaughter, at Anchau, Giwa and Soba slaughter slabs. Skin specimens were obtained from the neck area after the postmortem inspection and preserved in 10% buffered neutral formalin. Microscopic examination of Haematoxylin and Eosin stained sections, of 145 of the skin specimens which were processed, revealed an intradermal aggregation of Besnoitia cysts in a Kano-brown doe. The intact cysts stimulated no inflammatory reactions but those with degenerated cyst-walls initiated infiltration of mononuclear cells to the site. All sections from the remaining 144 specimens were negative of the disease. An incidence of 0.7% was recorded for caprine besnoitiosis in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria.
  Sa’idu, L. , P.A. Abdu and L.B. Tekdek
  Parent stock, Yolk and chicks from five commercial hatcheries at Zaria and Kaduna were evaluated for antibodies to Newcastle disease ( ND ). The ND vaccination history and the age (s) of the breeders were found out from the hatcheries. Haemmagglutination inhibition (HI) test was used for the detection and quantification of antibodies (AB) to ND in the parent stock, yolk and in the day old chicks. The HI titre of each bird, yolk and chick was determined and expressed in log 2 and the mean titres for the parent stock, yolk and chicks were calculated. The ages of the parent stock ranged from 30 weeks for hatchery A to 95 weeks for hatchery B, all the hatcheries used to administer ND vaccine Hitchner B1 ( intra ocular ) at day old, La Sota at 3 -5 weeks, Komorov at 6-8 weeks and another dose of komorov at 16 - 18 weeks. There after the birds were given booster ND vaccination using ND La Sota vaccine or killed oil emulsion Komorov vaccine The HI.AB titre for the parent stock ranged from 5.8 ± 1.6 to 7.6 ±1.6 log 2 and the titre for the egg also ranged from 5.1 ± 0.9 to 6.2 ± 1.7 log 2. The HI titre for the chick ranged from 3.4 ± 1.4 to 5.3 ± 1.1 log2 at 1day (d) old and it declines to a lowest value of 1.1 ± 1.2 log 2 at 28d. The study shows that all the parent stock had protective AB titre (5.8 ± 1.6 to 7.6 ± 1.6 ) and there is a correlation between the AB titre in the serum of the parent stock and that of the yolk. The AB titre in the chicks declines to non-protective level (1.5 ± 1.1 log 2) at 14 d. It was concluded that although the titres of the parent stock is within protective level, it is still low and that the yolk of fertile eggs can be used to determine the AB titre of the parent stock.
  I.U. Ate , P.I. Rekwot , A.J. Nok and L.B. Tekdek
  A study was conducted to evaluate the economic losses associated with reproductive disorders of cows in settled cattle herds in Zaria. The overall financial losses due to reproductive disorders in 176 cows studied using the farm gate prices were significant especially if the losses are assessed on the entire national cattle population. Out of these losses, the direct losses accounted for 59.2%, while the indirect losses accounted for 40.8%. Brucellosis and milk loss constituted the greatest components of the direct losses while man-hour spent by herd owners was the greatest component of the indirect losses. Vulval lacerations, teat injuries, subclinical and clinical mastitis, calf diarrhea, respiratory infection, dermatitis and coccidiosis also contributed significantly to the indirect losses. The psychological effects due to these disorders as well as the health implication of brucellosis in exposed population could not be computed. It is suggested that the study be further conducted on a larger scale, both regionally and nationally and that efforts should be made towards the control of reproductive disorders in settled cattle herds in the area and Nigeria in general.
  A.K. Mohammed , A.K.B. Sackey , L.B. Tekdek and J.O. Gefu
  The prevalence of common diseases of the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) introduced into a sub-humid savanna climate of Nigeria for a period of 3 years (2002-2005) is reported. A total of 85 clinical cases were examined. Sixty-seven and thirty-three percents were in the rainy season (June to October) and dry season (November to May) respectively. The most prevalent health problem was helminthosis (31.8%). Egg counts of up to 800 per gram of faeces (epg) were recorded during the rainy season. Traumatic injuries recorded 17.6%, tick infestation 10.6% and footpad perforation 8.2%. Others were conjunctivitis 5.9%, mange 4.7%, abscesses 4.7%, lameness 7.1%, enteritis 2.4%, abortion 2.4%, coccidiosis 2.4%, kneecap dislocation 1.2% and bent-neck syndrome 1.2%. Blood parasites observed were Anaplasma marginale and microfilaria. Two male camels died during the period of study, the first death being due to pneumogastroenteritis and the second of bent-neck syndrome. The disease conditions showed remarkable seasonal pattern of occurrence with higher prevalence during the rainy season. The undiagnosed cases of musculoskeletal incoordination needs further research for effective introduction of camels into sub humid zone of Nigeria.
  A.K. Mohammed , A.K.B. Sackey , L.B. Tekdek and J.O. Gefu
  The study was carried out to evaluate the draught performance of the dromedary and Bunaji work bulls as draught animals for ridging, ploughing and weeding operations in a sub-humid environment of Nigeria. Four work dromedaries singly harnessed and 8 Bunaji work bulls yoked in pairs were used for the evaluation. The camels’ mean weight was 450±12.8 kg while a pair of bulls weighed 760±15.4 kg. The animals were made to plough, ridge and weed an area of 1500 m2 of uncultivated flat land. The absolute draught force produced by one dromedary for ridging (0.80 kN), weeding (0.36 kN) and ploughing (0.18 kN) were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that produced by a pair of work bulls (0.79 kN, 0.30 kN, 0.30 kN) for same operations although the live weight of a pair of work bulls (760±15.4 kg) was significantly (p< 0.01) higher than that of a single dromedary (450±12.8 kg). The bulls ridged 0.23 ha of land per hour (1 ha / 4.4 h) which was significantly (p< 0.01) faster than the camels’ 0.18 ha per hour (1 ha 5.3 h 1). It is thus conclusive from this study that, the one humped camel can be efficiently utilized as an alternative draught ruminant in the sub-humid savanna zone of Nigeria.
  S.O. Okaiyeto , L.B. Tekdek , A.K.B. Sackey and O.J. Ajanusi
  The prevalence of ovine haemo and gastrointestinal parasite in the 8 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Northern Nigeria over a period of 10 months (February -October 2002) was evaluated. Blood and faecal samples were obtained from flocks of sheep herded with cattle. The study involved the random examination of 101 sheep of both sexes irrespective of breed, age between 9 and 36 months. Ninety percent of sheep examined were infected with gastrointestinal parasite while 33% were infected with haemoparasite. Mixed infections of haemo-and gastrointestinal parasite occured in 34.6% of sheep examined. Seventy seven percent of these occurred as single haemoparasitic infections concurrently with one or two helminth species, 14.3% occurred as double haemoparasitic infections concurrently with one or two helminth species while only 8.6% occured as triple haemoparasite infection concurrently with one specie of helminth. Gastrointestinal and heamoparasitic infections appear to be widespread in the area of study. Much of the infection seem to be subclinical and could indirectly cause production losses without attracting farmers attention to institute control measures.
  S.O. Okaiyeto , L.B. Tekdek , A.K. Sackey and O.J. Ajunusi
  An experimental study on dual infections with Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Haemonchus contortus (Hc) was conducted in 30 female Yankassa sheep aged between 12 and 25 months. Parasitological observations like prepatent period, faecal egg count, worm burden were made on animals infected with H. contortus alone and T. congolense also alone. Then one group was infected with T. congolense and one week after H. contortus infection and another group vice versa. It was observed that in Tc+Hc group, T. congolense infection lowered the normal reisitance to H. contortus. The prepatent period was reduced to 17days as compared to 21 days in single H. contortus and in H. contortus preceding T. congolense, respectively. Aneamia, diarrhea and rough hair coat were the major presenting clinical sign. L3 establishment was significantly enhanced in Tc+Hc infected group, higher worm burden was also observed in the same Tc+Hc infected group. The result clearly indicated the immunosuppressive effects of Trypanosomosis on the animal inability to resist helminthic infection.
  S.O. Okaiyeto , L.B. Tekdek , A.K.B. Sackey and O.J. Ajanusi
  A survey of the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in nomadic sheep was conducted during the period of February to October 2002. Data were gathered from 28 flocks of sheep with a total of 101Yankassa sheep in 8 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Northern Nigeria. High prevalence rate was observed in all the LGAs, Igabi (94.0%), Kagarko (100.0%), Birnin Gwari (100.0%), Doka Keffi (100.0%), Lapai (83.0%) Tafa (100.0%) and Doguwa (80.0%) except Kankiya which had 50%. The mean helminth prevalence rates according to their species were Haemonchus contortus 49.9%, Cooperia curtecie 39.6%, Oesophagostomum sp. 14.9% and Trichostrongylus sp. 1.9%. Doka, LGA in Nasarawa State had the highest (66.7%) prevalence rate for H. contortus with the lowest (20%) obtained from Kankiya LGA. Cooperia curtecie had the highest (100%) mean prevalence rate in Kangarko LGA of Kaduna State while Birnin Gwari LGA of the same State recorded the lowest mean prevalence (13.4%). The mean prevalence for Oesophagostomum sp. was low, 30.0% was the highest value observed in Kankiya LGA of Katsina state, the lowest value(10.0%) was observed in Doguwa LGA of Kano state. Trichostrongylus sp. has the lowest mean prevalence (6.6%) and was observed only in Birnin Gwari LGA of Kaduna state. Mixed infection constituted substantial (70.3%) proportion of all gastrointestinal nematode infection in all the sampled areas. The frequency of occurrence of single infection is 17.4%, double infections 39.5% triple infections 37.9% and quadruple infections 5.8%. Most of the animals examined had low to moderate infection, suggesting that the infections were probably at sub-clinical level.
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