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Articles by L. Yang
Total Records ( 6 ) for L. Yang
  R. Zang , J. Bai , H. Xu , L. Zhang , J. Yang , L. Yang , J. Lu and J. Wu
  Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the most accurate method of quantifying gene expression, provided that suitable endogenous controls are used to normalize the data. To date, no reference genes have been validated for development in Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep (Ovis aries). We have determined the expression profiles of 7 housekeeping genes as candidate reference genes (Actb, Ywhaz, Sdha, Gapdh, Tubb2, Pgk1 and 18S rRNA) in 7 developmental stages (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 months of age) and 6 tissues (omental fat, liver, tail fat, thigh muscle, subcutaneous fat (backfat above 12th and 13th rib) and perirenal fat) in Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep. The software packages geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were used to evaluate the stability of potential reference genes; each produced comparable results. Initial results showed several of the candidate genes exhibited stable expression throughout development while Actb was identified as the least stable gene. Further analysis with geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper identified Gapdh, Tubb2, Sdha and Ywhaz as acceptably stable in gene expression. Comparison of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1) expression data normalized with geometric averages obtained from combinations of either Gapdh, Sdha, Ywhaz or Tubb2, Sdha, Ywhaz showed no significant differences, indicating that these two combinations are similar. The data provided in this paper may also be useful in guiding researchers performing gene expression in other species of sheep.
  L. Yang , L. Y. Zhang , H. Y. Qiao , N. Liu , Y. X. Wang and S. J. Li
  During early pregnancy in the bovine, it is necessary for the conceptus not only to block the luteal regression in order to ensure continual production of luteal progesterone but also to modify maternal immune system so as to prevent the fetus in uterus from the immune destruction. The present researches are concentrated on the immune regulation of maternal uterus, peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes and corpus luteum which induced by interferon-tau, the primary pregnancy recognition signal in the bovine but it is not well understood for modulation of the maternal immune system by conceptus. In this review, we are not only concentrated on the advance in the immune regulation of maternal uterus and peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes but also focus on the immune regulation by the secretions of conceptus beside interferon-tau. The secretions of conceptus beside interferon-tau include placental lactogen, pregnancy-associated proteins, prostaglandin E2, non classical MHC class I, GATA transcription factors, prolactin-related protein, Cox-2 and IL-6. Furthermore, interferon-tau may be involved in maternal systemic immune regulation through peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte, platelets and cell-free DNA by the lymph circulation and blood circulation in the bovine.
  F. Bragg , L. Li , M. Smith , Y. Guo , Y. Chen , I. Millwood , Z. Bian , R. Walters , J. Chen , L. Yang , R. Collins , R. Peto , Y. Lu , B. Yu , X. Xie , Y. Lei , G. Luo and Z. Chen


To examine the relationship of self-reported diabetes, and of random blood glucose levels among individuals without known diabetes, with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults.


We examined cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 million people aged 30-79 years recruited from 10 diverse regions of China in the period 2004-2008. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of prevalent cardiovascular disease associated with self-reported diabetes, and with measured random blood glucose levels among participants with no history of diabetes, adjusting simultaneously for age, sex, area, education, smoking, alcohol, blood pressure and physical activity.


A total of 3.2% of participants had self-reported diabetes (men 2.9%; women 3.3%) and 2.8% had screen-detected diabetes (men 2.6%; women 2.8%), i.e. they had no self-reported history of diabetes but a blood glucose level suggestive of a diagnosis of diabetes. Compared with individuals without a history of diabetes, the odds ratios associated with self-reported diabetes were 2.18 (95% CI 2.06-2.30) and 1.88 (95% CI 1.75-2.01) for prevalent ischaemic heart disease and stroke/transient ischaemic attack, respectively. Among participants without self-reported diabetes there was a positive association between random blood glucose and ischaemic heart disease and stroke/transient ischaemic attack prevalence (P for trend <0.0001). Below the diabetic threshold (<11.1 mmol/l) each additional 1 mmol/l of random blood glucose was associated with 4% (95% CI 2-5%) and 5% (95% CI 3-7%) higher odds of prevalent ischaemic heart disease and stroke/transient ischaemic attack, respectively.


In this adult Chinese population, self-reported diabetes was associated with a doubling of the odds of prevalent cardiovascular disease. Below the threshold for diabetes there was still a modest, positive association between random blood glucose and prevalent cardiovascular disease.

  L. Yang , L.P. Zhang , J.P. Wu , M.A. Brown , B. Liu , B.Y. Ma and L. Wang
  Metallothionein-III (MT-III) as a new member of the Metallothionein (MT) family has specific physiological effects different from known MT-I and MT-II. In this study, the yak MT-III gene coding region was amplified and cloned by RT-PCR from brain tissue of yak using YMT-IIISP1 and YMT-IIISP2 as specific primers. The isolated cDNA sequence of MT-III was 207 bp in length (Genbank Accession, NO, DQ323545) and was subjected to BLASTn searching in NCBI. Results of the search indicate that nucleotide sequences of yak share 98, 97, 96, 92, 91, 90, 89, 88 and 86% sequence similarity with cattle, milk goat, hair goat, pig, sheep, chimpanzee, human, dog and house mouse, respectively. Comparing homologies of MT-III sequences with MT-I and MT-II in yak, we found 69 and 67% homologies, respectively. The MT-III protein was composed of 68 amino acids, including 19 cysteines, similar to the number of cysteines of sheep but not human and mouse which lack the conserved ninth cysteine and have no aromatic amino acids. There were conserved motifs of MTs, such as C-X-C, C-C-X-C-C, C-X-X-C and KKS and specific motifs including MDPE, CPCP in MT-III. This conservation of motifs suggests a conservation of MT-III in molecular evolution. The MT-III in yak had no signal peptide and represented a form of cytoplasmic protein similar to MT-I/II. There were few sheets in secondary protein structures, obvious helices in 39-46th AA and mainly irregular curling in the 2D-structure of MT-III protein. The lack of the conserved ninth cysteine in yak MT-III merits further research.
  H.L. Wan , L.P. Zhang , M.A. Brown , X.J. Wu , J.H. Wang , L. Yang , Z. Deng and J.P. Wu
  Meat from yak (Bos grunniens) is a primary staple in diets of people in western China. Yak meat has low-fat content, high protein and good amino acid and fatty acid profiles. However, meat from yak may be less tender than meat from Bos taurus cattle. Gannan Black yaks (n = 181) were used to investigate the effects of age at harvest and aging days on meat quality characteristics of M. longissimus dorsi. Yaks were harvested at 2, 3 and 4 year of age and muscles of each yak carcass were aged for 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 or 21 days at 4°C and frozen at -20°C until analyzed. Age at harvest affected shear force and percentage fat, protein and moisture (p<0.05). Aging days affected shear force, retort cooking loss, pressing loss, moist cooking loss, pH, percentage fat, moisture (p<0.01) and protein (p<0.10). There were interactions between aging days and age at harvest for shear force, moisture and protein (p<0.01). Aging days appeared to have a greater effect on shear force than age at harvest and tended to moderate the age at harvest effect on shear force. When cooked in retortable bags, cooking loss decreased until 3 days postmortem after which it remained relatively constant. When steam cooked, meat aged 7 days had the lowest cooking loss (p<0.05). Pressing loss decreased until 3 days postmortem then remained relatively constant. After thawing, pH decreased during the 21 days period of postmortem aging with the greatest decline in the first 24 h (6.68-5.73 from 2-24 h postmortem). Results suggest that aging yak meat 7 days is sufficient for acceptable tenderness and meat quality.
  Q.S. Ai , Q. Liu , Z.D. Zhou , L. Yang and S.Q. Xie

This paper proposes a new watermarking scheme for three-dimensional (3D) triangular mesh models. In this new scheme, feature points from the rapid changing regions are used to uniquely partition a 3D mesh model into Voronoi patches. Each Voronoi patch is then projected to a reference square plane and the corresponded range image is generated. By employing the existing two-dimensional (2D) image watermarking algorithms, watermark information is embedded into the transform domain of each range image. The watermarked 3D mesh model is obtained by perturbing the vertexes of each patch according to its watermarked range image. In order to make the watermarking scheme robust against various forms of attacks while preserving the perceptibility of the model, the length of the watermark information, the number of the feature points and the embedding strength of the watermark are made adaptive with respect to the geometry complexity of the 3D mesh models. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme has good imperceptibility and performs well under common 3D watermarking attacks such as mesh simplification, adding noise and cropping.

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