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Articles by L. Wang
Total Records ( 14 ) for L. Wang
  I Tabbi Anneni , R Cooksey , V Gunda , S Liu , A Mueller , G Song , D. A McClain and L. Wang
 

The orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP) regulates metabolic pathways involved in hepatic bile acid production and both lipid and glucose homeostasis via the transcriptional repression of other nuclear receptors. In the present study, we generated fat-specific SHP-overexpressed transgenic (TG) mice and determined the potential role of SHP activation, specifically in adipocytes, in the regulation of adipose tissue function in response to stressors. We determined in 2 mo-old SHP TG mice body weight, fat mass index, adipose tissues morphology, thermogenic and metabolic gene expression, metabolic rates at baseline and in response to β adrenergic receptor agonists, and brown fat ultrastructural changes in response to cold exposure (6–48 h). Mice were fed a 10-wk high-fat diet (HFD; 42% fat). Weight gain, fat mass index, adipose tissues morphology, glucose tolerance, and metabolic rates were determined at the end of the feeding. Young TG mice had increased body weight and adiposity; however, their energy metabolism was increased and brown fat function was enhanced in response to cold exposure through the activation of thermogenic genes and mitochondrial biogenesis. SHP overexpression exacerbated the diet-induced obesity phenotype as evidence by marked weight gain over time, increased adiposity, and severe glucose intolerance compared with wild-type mice fed a HFD. In addition, SHP-TG mice fed HFD had decreased diet-induced adaptive thermogenesis, increased food intake, and decreased physical activity. In conclusion, SHP activation in adipocytes strongly affects weight gain and diet-induced obesity. Developing a synthetic compound to antagonize the effect of SHP may prove to be useful in treating obesity.

  M. Honty , M. De Craen , L. Wang , J. Madejova , A. Czimerova , M. Pentrak , I. Stricek and M. Van Geet
  Boom Clay is currently viewed as a reference host formation for studies on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. The interactions between bulk rock Boom Clay and 0.1 M KOH, 0.1 M NaOH, 0.1 M Ca(OH)2, young cement water and evolved cement water solutions, ranging in pH from 12.5 to 13.2, were examined as static batch experiments at 60 °C to simulate alkaline plume perturbations, which are expected to occur in the repository due to the presence of concrete. Both liquids and solids were investigated at specific times between 90 and 510 days in order to control the elemental budget and to search for potential mineralogical alterations. Also, the clay fraction was separated from the whole-rock Boom Clay at the end of each run and characterized for its mineralogical composition. Thereby, the importance of the mineral matrix to buffer the alkaline attack and the role of organic matter to protect clay minerals were also addressed. The results indicate that the degree of geochemical perturbation in Boom Clay is dependent on the initial pH of the applied solution together with the nature of the major cation in the reactant fluids. The higher the initial pH of the media, the stronger its interaction with Boom Clay. No major non-clay mineralogical alteration of the Boom Clay was detected, but dissolution of kaolinite, smectite and illite occurred within the studied experimental conditions. The dissolution of clays is accompanied by the decrease in the layer charge, followed by a decrease in the cation-exchange capacity. The highest TOC values coincide with the highest total elemental concentrations in the leachates, and correspondingly, the highest dissolution degree. However, no quantitative link could be established between the degree of organic matter decomposition and clay dissolution.
  X. Liang , Q. Wang , X. Yang , J. Cao , J. Chen , X. Mo , J. Huang , L. Wang and D. Gu
  Aims  To assess the effect of mobile phone intervention on glycaemic control in diabetes self-management. Methods We searched three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) using the following terms: diabetes or diabetes mellitus and mobile phone or cellular phone, or text message. We also manually searched reference lists of relevant papers to identify additional studies. Clinical studies that used mobile phone intervention and reported changes in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values in patients with diabetes were reviewed. The study design, intervention methods, sample size and clinical outcomes were extracted from each trial. The results of the HbA1c change in the trials were pooled using meta-analysis methods.

Results  A total of 22 trials were selected for the review. Meta-analysis among 1657 participants showed that mobile phone interventions for diabetes self-management reduced HbA1c values by a mean of 0.5% [6 mmol/mol; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.7% (4-8 mmol/mol)] over a median of 6 months follow-up duration. In subgroup analysis, 11 studies among Type 2 diabetes patients reported significantly greater reduction in HbA1c than studies among Type 1 diabetes patients [0.8 (9 mmol/mol) vs. 0.3% (3 mmol/mol); P = 0.02]. The effect of mobile phone intervention did not significantly differ by other participant characteristics or intervention strategies.

Conclusions  Results pooled from the included trials provided strong evidence that mobile phone intervention led to statistically significant improvement in glycaemic control and self-management in diabetes care, especially for Type 2 diabetes patients.

  M. S. Irwig , P. Sood , D. Ni , T. Amass , P. S. Khurana , V. V. Jayanthi , L. Wang and S. M Adler
  Aims  To test (1) whether a diabetes scorecard can improve glycaemic control, blood pressure control, LDL cholesterol, aspirin usage and exercise; (2) if the scorecard will motivate and/or educate patients to improve their scores for subsequent visits; and (3) whether the scorecard will improve rates of clinical inertia.

Methods  Five physicians enrolled 103 patients ≥ 40 years old with uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes [HbA1c≥ 64 mmol/mol (8.0%)] to randomly receive either a diabetes scorecard or not during four clinical visits over a 9-month period. The population was predominantly urban with a disproportionately higher percentage of black people than the general population. Our scorecard assigned points to six clinical variables, with a perfect total score of 100 points corresponding to meeting all targets. The primary outcomes were total scores and HbA1c in the scorecard and control groups at 9 months.

Results  There were no significant differences between the control and scorecard groups at visits 1 and 4 in total score, HbA1c, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, aspirin usage, exercise or knowledge about diabetic targets. By visit 4 both the control and scorecard groups had statistically significant improvements with their mean total score (9 and 7 points, respectively), HbA1c [-9 mmol/mol (-0.8%) and -15 mmol/mol (-1.4%), respectively] and aspirin usage (33% increase and 16% increase, respectively). Rates of clinical inertia were low throughout the study.

Conclusions  A diabetes scorecard did not improve glycaemic control, blood pressure control, LDL cholesterol, aspirin usage, exercise or diabetic knowledge in an urban population with uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes.

  N Niu , Y Qin , B. L Fridley , J Hou , K. R Kalari , M Zhu , T. Y Wu , G. D Jenkins , A Batzler and L. Wang
 

Radiation therapy is used to treat half of all cancer patients. Response to radiation therapy varies widely among patients. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify biomarkers to help predict radiation response using 277 ethnically defined human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Basal gene expression levels and 1.3 million genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from both Affymetrix and Illumina platforms were assayed for all 277 human LCLs. MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assays for radiation cytotoxicity were also performed to obtain area under the curve (AUC) as a radiation response phenotype for use in the association studies. Functional validation of candidate genes, selected from an integrated analysis that used SNP, expression, and AUC data, was performed with multiple cancer cell lines using specific siRNA knockdown, followed by MTS and colony-forming assays. A total of 27 loci, each containing at least two SNPs within 50 kb with P-values less than 10–4 were associated with radiation AUC. A total of 270 expression probe sets were associated with radiation AUC with P < 10–3. The integrated analysis identified 50 SNPs in 14 of the 27 loci that were associated with both AUC and the expression of 39 genes, which were also associated with radiation AUC (P < 10–3). Functional validation using siRNA knockdown in multiple tumor cell lines showed that C13orf34, MAD2L1, PLK4, TPD52, and DEPDC1B each significantly altered radiation sensitivity in at least two cancer cell lines. Studies performed with LCLs can help to identify novel biomarkers that might contribute to variation in response to radiation therapy and enhance our understanding of mechanisms underlying that variation.

  B Liu , A. V Perepelov , M. V Svensson , S. D Shevelev , D Guo , S. N Senchenkova , A. S Shashkov , A Weintraub , L Feng , G Widmalm , Y. A Knirel and L. Wang
 

O-antigen (O-polysaccharide), a part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is one of the most variable cell constituents and is related to bacterial virulence. O-antigen diversity is almost entirely due to genetic variations in O-antigen gene clusters. In this study, the O-polysaccharide structures of Salmonella O55 and Escherichia coli O103 were elucidated by chemical analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was found that the O-polysaccharides have similar pentasaccharide O-units, which differ only in one sugar (glucose versus N-acetylglucosamine) and in the N-acyl group (acetyl versus 3-hydroxybutanoyl) on 3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose (d-Fuc3N). The Salmonella O55 antigen gene cluster was sequenced and compared with the E. coli O103 antigen gene cluster reported previously. The two gene clusters were found to share high-level similarity (DNA identity ranges from 53% to 76%), except for two putative acyl transferase genes (fdtC in Salmonella O55 and fdhC in E. coli O103) which show no similarity. Replacement of the fdtC gene in Salmonella O55 with the fdhC gene from E. coli O103 resulted in production of a modified O-antigen, which contains a 3-hydroxybutanoyl derivative of Fuc3N in place of 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxygalactose. This finding strongly suggests that fdhC is a 3-hydroxybutanoyltransferase gene. The sequence similarity level suggested that the O-antigen gene clusters of Salmonella O55 and E. coli O103 originate from a common ancestor, and this evolutionary relationship is discussed.

  L. Wang
 

This study considers the effects of (i) ownership structure, (ii) prior size dynamics of growth and decline, and (iii) organizational size on changes in the formal structure of organizations. Using a broad sample of almost 70,000 US public and private firms, I test the arguments by estimating conditional logistic regressions using as dependent variables two dimensions of organizational structural differentiation: the number of formal subunits and hierarchical levels. The findings show that public firms are more likely to elaborate structurally, but less likely to simplify their structural differentiation. As organizations grow/decline in size, they apparently tend to increase/decrease their degree of structural differentiation. However, for a given change in size, the level of structural differentiation is less likely to increase during growth than it is to decrease during decline, indicating an asymmetric pattern. I also find that organizational size can serve as a facilitator or inhibitor for structural change, depending on the direction of change. Finally, I find that the asymmetric pattern of growth and decline works differently for large and small firms. The same proportional increase in size is more likely to generate structural differentiation for larger firms than for smaller firms. But the same proportional decrease in size has a smaller likelihood of causing structural de-differentiation for larger firms than for smaller firms.

  S. Dasari , L. Wang , D.A. Harrison and R.L. Cooper
  The misexpression as well as a knock down of the 5-HT2dro receptor produces slower body movements in larvae and altered development. When 1st instar larvae are raised with altered expression levels a high degree of death occurred. Exposure of the CNS to 5-HT in control larva increases motor unit excitability; however, when the 5-HT2dro expression is decreased the relative sensitivity to exogenously applied 5-HT is enhanced. This is likely a function of reduced basal CNS activity in this line. No change was observed for the strain with an over-expression compared to controls. Evoked sensory-CNS-motor circuits as well as spontaneous motor neuronal activity are also reduced. Like CNS activity, Heart Rate (HR) in larva is sensitive to 5-HT. When the 1st instar to early 3rd instar were chronically reduced or misexpressed in the 5-HT receptor no alteration to 5-HT sensitivity on HR occurred, although the initial HR was lower in both strains as compared to wild type. Thus, a normal expression of the 5-HT2dro is required for development and CNS responsiveness to 5-HT, but this receptor subtype might not function in acute responsiveness of the heart to 5-HT, although the receptor has some effect on basal heart rate.
  L. Yang , L.P. Zhang , J.P. Wu , M.A. Brown , B. Liu , B.Y. Ma and L. Wang
  Metallothionein-III (MT-III) as a new member of the Metallothionein (MT) family has specific physiological effects different from known MT-I and MT-II. In this study, the yak MT-III gene coding region was amplified and cloned by RT-PCR from brain tissue of yak using YMT-IIISP1 and YMT-IIISP2 as specific primers. The isolated cDNA sequence of MT-III was 207 bp in length (Genbank Accession, NO, DQ323545) and was subjected to BLASTn searching in NCBI. Results of the search indicate that nucleotide sequences of yak share 98, 97, 96, 92, 91, 90, 89, 88 and 86% sequence similarity with cattle, milk goat, hair goat, pig, sheep, chimpanzee, human, dog and house mouse, respectively. Comparing homologies of MT-III sequences with MT-I and MT-II in yak, we found 69 and 67% homologies, respectively. The MT-III protein was composed of 68 amino acids, including 19 cysteines, similar to the number of cysteines of sheep but not human and mouse which lack the conserved ninth cysteine and have no aromatic amino acids. There were conserved motifs of MTs, such as C-X-C, C-C-X-C-C, C-X-X-C and KKS and specific motifs including MDPE, CPCP in MT-III. This conservation of motifs suggests a conservation of MT-III in molecular evolution. The MT-III in yak had no signal peptide and represented a form of cytoplasmic protein similar to MT-I/II. There were few sheets in secondary protein structures, obvious helices in 39-46th AA and mainly irregular curling in the 2D-structure of MT-III protein. The lack of the conserved ninth cysteine in yak MT-III merits further research.
  Z.Y. Wei , L. Wang , Y. Ji , L.H. Yu , X.H. Pan , M.Z. Wang and H.R. Wang
  The effects of dietary levels of tryptophan and feeding regimen on growth performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated in Yangzhou goslings from 28-70 days of age. In a 2x3 factorial design, a total of two hundred and seventy birds were randomly assigned to 6 treatments according to a 2x3 factorial design. Treatments consisted of two feeding regimens (ad libitum vs. 90% restricted feeding) each contained three levels of tryptophan (0.15, 0.23 and 0.31%) to which 0.08% increments of tryptophan were supplemented. Each experimental treatment had 3 replicates of 15 birds per pen. Feed intake of goslings from each pen was recorded everyday during the 6th week while body weight and feed conversion ratio were measured at a 2 weeks interval. At the end of the feeding experiment, 9 goslings (three birds were randomly chosen from each replicate) were slaughtered to evaluate carcass characteristics. The results showed that average daily gain and carcass characteristics were significantly higher in goslings fed ad libitum when comparing with those restricted feeding. Positive responses in daily feed intake and weight gain were attained by the addition of tryptophan to level up to 0.23% in diet whereas no statistical difference was found when the dietary level reached 0.31%. Supplemental tryptophan had not significant effect on carcass characteristics with exception of breast meat yield. It was found that goslings maximized their breast meat yield at a dietary level of 0.23% tryptophan compared with 0.15% tryptophan in diet. This study indicated that the gosling diets fed in restriction have some unfavourable effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Dietary tryptophan addition up to level 0.23% can increase daily feed intake, weight gain and breast meat yield.
  W. Wang , L. Wang , J.N. Li and M. Zhang
  Nine bacterial strains (LA1, LA2, LA4, JA1, CA3, CA4, BA1, BA18 and EA9) were isolated from different aquaculture animals with haemorrhagic septicemia and then they were identified as A. hydrophila (LA4, JA1, CA3 and BA1), A. sobria (LA1 and EA9), A. caviae (BA18) and A. veronii (CA4 and LA2), respectively by morphological and biochemical characterization. All isolates were found to be pathogenic to experimental zebrafish (Danio rerio) by artificial infection test. The outer membrane protein Aha1 is a major adhesin of A. hydrophila and also highly conserved in different serotypes of A. hydrophila. In order to ascertain the conservation of aha1 protein among mesophilic motile aeromonads, full length aha1 gene from all isolates was detected, cloned and sequenced. As the results show, the aha1 genes were amplified in all strains and the ORF size of the aha1 gene from A. hydrophila and other phenotypic species of aeromonas isolates was 1,068 and 1,038 bp, respectively. Four Anhui A. hydrophila isolates and six A. hydrophila reference strains formed a cluster together with 91.4-99.7% nucleotide identity and 91.9-99.7% amino acid identity of the aha1 gene. Five Anhui other phenotypic species isolates formed another cluster, they shared 79.5-81.1% nucleotide identity and 79.6-81.6% amino acid identity of the aha1 gene compared with A. hydrophila and the major sequence variations were observed between amino acids 85-134, 176- 227, 243-263, 280-295 and 321-336.
  L. Wang , K.M. Peng , M. Chen , X.T. Zheng , T.T. Liu , C.Y. Jin and W.W. Cao
  The research was carried out on 1-90 days old African ostrich chicks to study the morphological characteristics of tibia development. The length, weight and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and the developmental characteristics of microstructure and ultrastructure were measured and analyzed in the research. Results showed: ostrich chicks <90 days grew fast and the length, weight and BMD of the tibia all increased significantly and continuously. In the tibia of 1 day old bird, transitional trabeculae constituted the primary cancellous bone which constituted the early formation of backbone. Lots of osteoblasts cling to the surface of cartilage formed thin primary cancellous bone; transitional bone trabeculae were very thin. In the tibia of 45 days old bird, resorption was very active, transitional bone trabecula was absorbed by osteoclasts and then rebuilded. The calcification process of cartilage matrix was active. In the tibia of 90 days old bird, rudiment of new born compact bone and osteons had already existed but the mature bone was still not formed. The study provides foundation for the further study on the influencing factor about tibia development and its molecular mechanism. Simultaneously, it gives the theoretical basis for breeding disease prevention and treatment.
  L. Wang and J. A. Duggin
  The impact of vegetative filter strips to reduce the delivery of nonpoint source pollutants from agricultural land to inland water systems is now recognized as an important element in overall agro-ecosystem management. A glasshouse experiment was undertaken to measure the effectiveness of tree (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and Casuarina cunninghamiana Mq.) and pasture filter strips to intercept lateral movement of NO3–N in soil water. Tree treatments retained significantly more NO3–N associated with shallow soil water movement (between the A and B soil horizons) than bare ground. Nitrate-N removal was not significantly different between trees and pasture, and among the tree treatments. However, uptake and accumulation of NO3–N by pastures was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the trees. The average rates of N accumulation were 0.82 g m2 and 1.52 g m–2 wk–1 for the tree plots and the pasture plots, respectively. The experiment also showed that the efficiency of NO3–N removal from soil solutions by trees was greater when NO3–N concentrations were relatively higher in the soil (81.4% removal at 20 mg L–1 compared to 68.1% at 10 mg L–1).
  S. C Wang , S. H Lee , M. C Lee and L. Wang
  Background

This study aimed to examine the associations between aboriginality, age, demographic and socioeconomic factors of the mother and the risk of low birth weight (LBW) in mountain townships of Taiwan.

Methods

We analyzed the LBW proportion of single live babies born to 2032 first-time mothers between 2004 and 2005. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test, analysis of variance, the Scheffe test and logistic regression.

Results

About 14.8% of Aboriginal mothers and 18.7% of Aboriginal teen mothers gave birth to infants of LBW. Aboriginal mothers were found to be at higher risk of delivering LBW infants; however, after controlling for marital status and education, the influence of aboriginality and age was no longer significant.

Conclusions

Marital status and education are more important determinants of LBW than aboriginality and age in mountain townships of Taiwan.

 
 
 
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