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Articles by L. Liu
Total Records ( 8 ) for L. Liu
  L. Liu , X. Yin and S. Morrissey
  Aims  In the absence of any previous global comparison, we examined the variability in prevalence of diabetes mellitus across 49 developing countries, and the associations of diabetes with body weight and primary healthcare support using data from the World Health Survey.

Methods  Diabetes mellitus was defined by individuals' self-report of a physician diagnosis of diabetes. BMI is the weight (kg)/the square of the height (m). Healthcare support was assessed using clinical treatment status and whether patients with diabetes followed prescribed behaviour changes to control diabetes. Associations of diabetes with BMI and diabetes treatment status were analysed cross-sectionally.

Results  A total of 215 898 participants were included in the analysis. Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes ranged from 0.27% (Mali) to 15.54% (Mauritius). Participants who were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were significantly associated with odds of having diabetes as compared with those who were of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 k/m2), with corresponding values of multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of 1.15 (1.07-1.24), 1.56 (1.44-1.68) and 2.35 (2.17-2.61), respectively. The overall untreated rate of those with diabetes mellitus was 9.6% in the total sample. Patients with underweight had the highest diabetes untreated rate, followed by those with normal weight, overweight and obesity.

Conclusion  There are significant variations in prevalence of diabetes and primary healthcare support for diabetes across low- and middle-income countries. Aggressively preventing abnormal body weight and improving healthcare support may play a pivotal role in ameliorating the unfavourable epidemic of diabetes in developing countries.

  C Li , Z Chen , Z Liu , J Huang , W Zhang , L Zhou , D. L Keefe and L. Liu

Mammalian parthenogenetic embryos (pE) are not viable due to placental deficiency, presumably resulting from lack of paternally expressed imprinted genes. Pluripotent parthenogenetic embryonic stem (pES) cells derived from pE could advance regenerative medicine by avoiding immuno-rejection and ethical roadblocks. We attempted to explore the epigenetic status of imprinted genes in the generation of pES cells from parthenogenetic blastocysts, and its relationship to pluripotency of pES cells. Pluripotency was evaluated for developmental and differentiation potential in vivo, based on contributions of pES cells to chimeras and development to day 9.5 of pES fetuses complemented by tetraploid embryos (TEC). Consistently, pE and fetuses failed to express paternally expressed imprinted genes, but pES cells expressed those genes in a pattern resembling that of fertilized embryos (fE) and fertilized embryonic stem (fES) cells derived from fE. Like fE and fES cells, but unlike pE or fetuses, pES cells and pES cell–fetuses complemented by TEC exhibited balanced methylation of Snrpn, Peg1 and U2af1-rs1. Coincidently, global methylation increased in pE but decreased in pES cells, further suggesting dramatic epigenetic reprogramming occurred during isolation and culture of pES cells. Moreover, we identified decreased methylation of Igf2r, Snrpn, and especially U2af1-rs1, in association with increased contributions of pES cells to chimeras. Our data show that in vitro culture changes epigenetic status of imprinted genes during isolation of pES cells from their progenitor embryos and that increased expression of U2af1-rs1 and Snrpn and decreased expression of Igf2r correlate with pluripotency of pES cells.

  Z.Y. Pan , Z. Chen , L. Liu , Y.Z. Cao , K.Z. Xie , J.S. Yang , X.G. Huang , S.L. Wu and W.B. Bao
  Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity, however the expression of TLR4 in piglets of different ages is still unknown. In this study, the tissue samples of 11 organs including heart, liver, spleen and so on were collected from 32 piglets of 4 different ages (8, 18, 30 and 35 days old). Real-time PCR was used to compare and analyze the expression of TLR4 both in different tissues and growing periods of piglets which aimed at discussing the function of TLR4 in immune responses in the piglets of development periods as well as showing the relationship between the expression level and piglets sensitivity to different subtypes E. coli. The results showed that TLR4 gene was expressed in all the tissues and high levels of expression were detected in immune organs such as lung, lymph node, thymus gland and spleen. In addition in 8 days old piglets, the expression level of TLR4 in immune organs such as lung, spleen, kidney and thymus gland was relatively high. Then the whole expression quantity continually increased reaching the highest level in 35 days old of weaning period, especially in thymus gland and lung. The expression of TLR4 in thymus gland in 35 days old piglets was significantly higher than that in piglets of other ages (p<0.05) and the expression in lung was significantly higher than that in 8 days old piglets (p<0.05). The results indicated that TLR4 played the extremely important role in connecting the natural immunity and specific immunity. Besides, TLR4 not only played an important role in both immune response and general resistance to lung diseases but also could have a significant control function in preventing weaning piglets from being infected by E. coli F18.
  J. Zhu , C. Zi , X.M. Su , L. Liu , Z.D. Du , L. Ye , K.Z. Xie , X.G. Huang , S.L. Wu and W.B. Bao
  The Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing protein (BPI) plays a very important role in the animal body’s natural defense. It has a series of biological functions such as killing Gram-negative bacteria, the neutralization of endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides, etc. To investigate the effect and mechanism of porcine BPI gene on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F18, particularly whether the expression of BPI gene is related to the different breeds. In this study, real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression of BPI gene expression in post-weaning piglets of Yorkshire, Sutai (Resource Population of resistance to E. coli F18) and Meishan. The results showed that there was almost no expression or very low expression of BPI gene in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, muscle, thymus and lymph nodes but there was a high expression in the duodenum and jejunum and the expression levels were significantly different from those of the other 9 organs. It also showed that the jejunum and duodenum expression of BPI gene in Sutai was significant higher than Yorkshire and Meishan (p<0.05). The researchers can speculate that the expression of BPI gene was significant difference in different breeds. The researchers can further indicates that the expression of the BPI gene in Sutai piglets could be beneficial to the infection of E. coli. BPI gene might have a direct role against diarrhea and edema disease caused by ECF18 in weaned piglets, the resistance was related to the upregulation of BPI gene expression in the intestine. BPI gene can be identified as a genetic marker for future breeding against E. coli and Salmonella related diseases.
  L. Liu , X.F. Hui and Y.F. Shao
  This study develops a sign-modified nonlinear similarity model to study the contagion in financial crisis. We use the similarity index as an indicator to analyze the contagion of the United States and Greece to other six countries during the subprime crisis and the European debt crisis. Our results show that in the 2007-2009 subprime crisis the United States is the contagion source; and that in the 2010-2012 European debt crisis, the impacts of Greece to other countries are smaller than those of the United States except for Italy and Spain. We conclude that the harm of the financial crisis from a large economy is more severe than that from a small economy and the small economy’s crisis mainly shocks the neighboring countries with similar economy.
  T. Detchprohm , M. Zhu , Y. Li , Y. Xia , L. Liu , D. Hanser and C. Wetzel

We demonstrate homoepitaxial growth of GaInN/GaN-based green (500–560 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on a-plane and m-plane quasi-bulk GaN prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). We find that in order to achieve an emission peak wavelength beyond 500 nm, a minimum InN-fraction of 14% is needed for both, a- and m-plane quantum wells (QWs), while 8% are enough for c-plane-oriented QWs. Besides increasing the InN-fraction in these non-polar QWs, widening the QW also proves to effectively shift the emission to longer wavelengths without loosing efficiency with the benefit of maintaining a low InN-fraction.

  C.X. Gu , L. Liu , L. Ling and L.Y. Shan
  Not avialable
  M Bhaskaran , Y Wang , H Zhang , T Weng , P Baviskar , Y Guo , D Gou and L. Liu

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs and are widely regarded as one of the most important regulators of gene expression in both plants and animals. To define the roles of miRNAs in fetal lung development, we profiled the miRNA expression pattern during lung development with a miRNA microarray. We identified 21 miRNAs that showed significant changes in expression during lung development. These miRNAs were grouped into four distinct clusters based on their expression pattern. Cluster 1 contained miRNAs whose expression increased as development progressed, while clusters 2 and 3 showed the opposite trend of expression. miRNAs in cluster 4 including miRNA-127 (miR-127) had the highest expression at the late stage of fetal lung development. Quantitative real-time PCR validated the microarray results of six selected miRNAs. In situ hybridization demonstrated that miR-127 expression gradually shifted from mesenchymal cells to epithelial cells as development progressed. Overexpression of miR-127 in fetal lung organ culture significantly decreased the terminal bud count, increased terminal and internal bud sizes, and caused unevenness in bud sizes, indicating improper development. These findings suggest that miR-127 may have an important role in fetal lung development.

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