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Articles by L. J. Gray
Total Records ( 6 ) for L. J. Gray
  L. J. Gray , N. A. Taub , K. Khunti , E. Gardiner , S. Hiles , D. R. Webb , B. T. Srinivasan and M. J. Davies
  Aims  Risk assessment scores identify those at high risk of impaired glucose regulation and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. To date no risk assessment scores that can be completed by a lay person have been developed and validated specifically for multiethnic populations in the UK.

Methods  We used data on 6186 subjects aged 40-75 years from a multiethnic UK screening study (73% white European, 22% South Asian). All participants were given a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. We developed logistic regression models for predicting current impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glycaemia/impaired glucose tolerance) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus using data from anthropometric measurements and self-reported questionnaires. Using the best-fitting model, we developed the Leicester Risk Assessment score. We externally validated the score using data from 3171 subjects aged 40-75 years from a separate screening study.

Results  The components of the final model are age, ethnicity [white European vs. other (predominantly South Asian)], sex, first degree family history of diabetes, antihypertensive therapy or history of hypertension, waist circumference and body mass index. The score ranges from 0 to 47. Validating this model using the data from the second screening study gave an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 72% (95% confidence interval, 69-74%). A cut point of 16 had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 45%.

Conclusions  The Leicester Risk Assessment score can be used to identify those at high risk of impaired glucose regulation and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in UK multiethnic populations. The score is simple (seven questions) and non-invasive.

  N. Aujla , M. J. Davies , T. C. Skinner , L. J. Gray , D. R. Webb , B. Srinivasan and K. Khunti
  Aim  To investigate associations between anxiety and measures of glycaemia in a White European and South Asian population attending community-based diabetes screening.

Methods  In total, 4688 White European and 1353 South Asian participants (aged 40-75 years) without a previous diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and HbA1c measurement, detailed history, anthropometric measurements and completed the short-form Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory.

Results  Anxiety was significantly higher in South Asian participants (mean 34.1; sd 0.37) compared with White European participants (mean 29.8; sd 0.13). Significant correlations were not identified between anxiety and fasting (r = −0.01, P = 0.75), 2-h glucose (r = −0.10, P = 0.24) or HbA1c (r = 0.01, P = 0.40).

Conclusions  Anxiety levels at screening were greater among South Asian people. Fasting, 2-h plasma glucose and HbA1c are not affected by anxiety during screening tests for diabetes. Current and proposed screening methods for diagnosis of diabetes are not affected by anxiety at screening.

  D. R. Webb , K. Khunti , L. J. Gray , B. T. Srinivasan , A. Farooqi , N. Wareham , S. C. Griffin and M. J. Davies
  Aims  To compare the effects of intensive multifactorial cardiovascular risk intervention with standard care in screen-detected Type 2 diabetes.

Methods  Twenty general practices randomly invited 30 950 adults without diagnosed diabetes for screening (World Health Organization, 1999). In a cluster randomized controlled trial, screen-detected cases were assigned by practice allocation to receive intensive protocol-driven cardiovascular risk management (n = 146) or standard care (n = 199) according to local guidelines. Intensive intervention was designed to achieve an HbA1c of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%), blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg and total cholesterol < 3.5 mmol/l. Primary outcome was modelled 5-year coronary heart disease risk (UKPDS-CHD). Analysis was via intention to treat.

Results  After 1.1 years 339 (98%) individuals were still participating. There were significant reductions in HbA1c, blood pressure and total cholesterol from baseline in both groups [mean change for total study population −27.7 mmol/mol (−0.62%), −11.64/10.01 mmHg, −1.11 mmol/l]. After adjustment for baseline and clustering, significant inter-group differences were observed in mean changes from baseline for HbA1c{−28.5 mmol/mol [−0.7% (1.4)] vs. −27.5 mmol/mol [−0.6% (1.6)], P = 0.001}, blood pressure [systolic −16.2 (19.6) vs. −8.4 (18.6) mmHg, P < 0.001], total cholesterol [−1.3 (1.3) vs. −1.0 (1.2) mmol/l, P < 0.001] and weight [−3.8 (5.5) vs. −2.2 (5.5) kg, P = 0.01] in favour of intensive treatment. UKPDS 5-year coronary heart disease risk was reduced by 3.2% and 2.3%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Intensive intervention was associated with more lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive but not hypoglycaemic medication use [odds ratios 2.5 (1.4-4.4), 5.5 (2.4-11.5), 1.6 (0.8-2.3); compared with standard care, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.65]. Treatment satisfaction responses were superior with intensive intervention, with no increase in self-reported hypoglycaemia.

Conclusion  Intensive intervention in patients with diabetes identified through systematic non-risk-factor-based screening significantly reduces modelled coronary heart disease risk. This is achieved predominantly with lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive treatments with no adverse effect on quality of life or hypoglycaemia.

  M. J. Davies , J. J. Gagliardino , L. J. Gray , K. Khunti , V. Mohan and R. Hughes


To identify real-world factors affecting adherence to insulin therapy in patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus.


A literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE in November 2011 to identify studies reporting factors associated with adherence/non-adherence to insulin therapy in adults with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.


Seventeen studies were identified; six used self-reported measures and 11 used calculated measures of adherence. Most (13/17) were conducted exclusively in the USA. Four categories of factors associated with non-adherence were identified: predictive factors for non-adherence, patient-perceived barriers to adherence, type of delivery device and cost of medication. For predictive factors and patient-perceived barriers, only age, female sex and travelling were associated with non-adherence in more than one study. Fear of injections and embarrassment of injecting in public were also cited as reasons for non-adherence. Conversely, adherence was improved by initiating therapy with, or switching to, a pen device (in four studies), and by changing to an insurance scheme that lowered the financial burden on patients (in two studies).


Adherence to insulin therapy is generally poor. Few factors or patient-perceived barriers were consistently identified as predictive for non-adherence, although findings collectively suggest that a more flexible regimen may improve adherence. Switching to a pen device and reducing patient co-payments appear to improve adherence. Further real-world studies are warranted, especially in countries other than the USA, to identify factors associated with non-adherence and enable development of strategies to improve adherence to insulin therapy.

  L. J. Gray , T. Leigh , M. J. Davies , N. Patel , M. Stone , M. Bonar , R. Badge and K. Khunti
  Not available
  E. G. Wilmot , M. Leggate , J. N. Khan , T. Yates , T. Gorely , D. H. Bodicoat , K. Khunti , J. P. A. Kuijer , L. J. Gray , A. Singh , P. Clarysse , P. Croisille , M. A. Nimmo , G. P. McCann and M. J. Davies


A pilot study to phenotype young adults (< 40 years) with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Twenty people with Type 2 diabetes (aged 18-40 years), 10 lean and 10 obese control subjects underwent detailed assessment, including tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, inflammatory proteins, lipids, vitamin D and maximal oxygen uptake. Outcomes were compared between the group with Type 2 diabetes and the control group.


Mean (standard deviation) age, Type 2 diabetes duration and BMI in the group with Type 2 diabetes were 31.8 (6.6) years, 4.7 (4.0) years and 33.9 (5.8) kg/m2 respectively. Compared with lean control subjects, those with Type 2 diabetes had more deleterious profiles of hyperlipidaemia, vitamin D deficiency, inflammation and maximal oxygen uptake relative to body mass. However, there was no difference between the group with Type 2 diabetes and the obese control group. The group with Type 2 diabetes had a higher left ventricular mass and a trend towards concentric remodelling compared with the lean control group (P = 0.002, P = 0.052) but not the obese control group (P > 0.05). Peak early diastolic strain rate was reduced in the group with Type 2 diabetes [1.51 (0.24)/s] compared with the lean control [1.97 (0.34)/s, P = 0.001] and obese control [1.78 (0.39)/s, P = 0.042] group.


Young adults with Type 2 diabetes and those with obesity have similar adverse cardiovascular risk profiles, higher left ventricular mass and a trend towards left ventricular concentric remodelling. In addition, those with Type 2 diabetes demonstrate diastolic dysfunction, a known risk marker for future heart failure and mortality.

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