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Articles by L. M Smith
Total Records ( 2 ) for L. M Smith
  T. R Gray , T Kelly , L. L LaGasse , L. M Smith , C Derauf , P Grant , R Shah , A Arria , W Haning , S Della Grotta , A Strauss , B. M Lester and M. A. Huestis

Background: Prenatal methamphetamine (MAMP) exposure is poorly reflected in neonatal meconium. Often, maternal self-reported MAMP use is not corroborated by positive results in amphetamines immunoassays of meconium, and even if initial test results are positive, they frequently are not confirmed for MAMP or amphetamine (AMP) by chromatographic analysis. The presence of the MAMP metabolites p-hydroxymethamphetamine (pOHMAMP), p-hydroxyamphetamine (pOHAMP), and norephedrine (NOREPH) in meconium may improve the identification of MAMP- and AMP-exposed neonates.

Methods: Immunoassay-positive and -negative meconium samples were subjected to liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometric reanalysis for these recently identified metabolites.

Results: pOHAMP and NOREPH were detected only when MAMP and/or AMP were present and thus do not appear to be promising biomarkers of prenatal MAMP exposure. pOHMAMP, in contrast, identified 6 additional neonates whose mothers reported MAMP exposure, yet had a meconium sample screened as negative; pOHMAMP was more likely to be present if maternal MAMP use continued into the third trimester. Although the pOHMAMP results for meconium samples corroborated the maternal self-reports, the confirmation rate for positive meconium screening results did not improve with the inclusion of these new biomarkers.

Conclusions: pOHMAMP identified additional MAMP- exposed neonates; therefore, MAMP, AMP, and pOHMAMP should be included in meconium chromatographic analyses. Maximizing the identification of MAMP-exposed children requires improvement in immunoassay screening tests to reduce false-negative and false-positive results. Additional research will help clarify which AMP-related compounds, if any, contribute to unconfirmed positive results in screening tests. Furthermore, nonamphetamine compounds endogenous to the complex meconium matrix also may cross-react, making chromatographic confirmation of screening results essential.

  I. R Searle , O Pontes , C. W Melnyk , L. M Smith and D. C. Baulcombe

JMJ14 is a histone H3 Lys4 (H3K4) trimethyl demethylase that affects mobile RNA silencing in an Arabidopsis transgene system. It also influences CHH DNA methylation, abundance of endogenous transposon transcripts, and flowering time. JMJ14 acts at a point in RNA silencing pathways that is downstream from RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) and Argonaute 4 (AGO4). Our results illustrate a link between RNA silencing and demethylation of histone H3 trimethylysine. We propose that JMJ14 acts downstream from the Argonaute effector complex to demethylate histone H3K4 at the target of RNA silencing.

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