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Articles by L. L Robison
Total Records ( 5 ) for L. L Robison
  L. R Meacham , C. A Sklar , S Li , Q Liu , N Gimpel , Y Yasui , J. A Whitton , M Stovall , L. L Robison and K. C. Oeffinger
 

Background  Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. To further characterize this risk, this study aimed to compare the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings.

Methods  Participants included 8599 survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), a retrospectively ascertained North American cohort of long-term survivors who were diagnosed between 1970 and 1986 as well as 2936 randomly selected siblings of the survivors. The main outcome was self-reported DM.

Results  The mean ages of the survivors and the siblings were 31.5 years (age range, 17.0-54.1 years) and 33.4 years (age range, 9.6-58.4 years), respectively. Diabetes mellitus was reported in 2.5% of the survivors and 1.7% of the siblings. After adjustment for body mass index, age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and insurance, the survivors were 1.8 times more likely than the siblings to report DM (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.5; P < .001), with survivors who received total body irradiation (odds ratio [OR], 12.6; 95% CI, 6.2-25.3; P < .001), abdominal irradiation (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.3-5.0; P < .001), and cranial irradiation (OR, 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.3; P = .03) at increased risk. In adjusted models, an increased risk of DM was associated with total body irradiation (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 3.4-15.0; P < .001), abdominal irradiation (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.9-3.8; P < .001), use of alkylating agents (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; P < .01), and younger age at diagnosis (0-4 years; OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.6; P < .01).

Conclusion  Childhood cancer survivors treated with total body or abdominal irradiation have an increased risk of diabetes that appears unrelated to body mass index or physical inactivity.

  C Laverdiere , Q Liu , Y Yasui , P. C Nathan , J. G Gurney , M Stovall , L. R Diller , N. K Cheung , S Wolden , L. L Robison and C. A. Sklar
  Background

The 5-year survival rate for individuals with neuroblastoma is approaching 70%. Few data exist, however, on the long-term outcomes of these patients, who are often treated at a very young age.

Methods

Outcome data were obtained for 954 5-year neuroblastoma survivors who were diagnosed in 1970–1986 and enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Late mortality, second malignant neoplasms, and chronic health conditions were analyzed in relation to treatment factors using Poisson regression models and their modification with generalized estimating equations. Neuroblastoma survivors were compared with a cohort of 3899 siblings of CCSS participants for risk of chronic health conditions and selected sociodemographic outcomes. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

Six percent of patients died more than 5 years after their diagnosis (standardized mortality ratio = 5.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4 to 6.9). The most common causes of death were disease recurrence (n = 43) and second malignant neoplasms (n = 13). The cumulative incidence of second malignant neoplasms was 3.5% at 25 years and 7.0% at 30 years after diagnosis. Compared with the sibling cohort, survivors had an increased risk of selected chronic health conditions (risk ratio [RR] = 8.3; 95% CI = 7.1 to 9.7) with a 20-year cumulative incidence of 41.1%. The most prevalent outcomes involved the neurological, sensory, endocrine, and musculoskeletal systems, with 20-year cumulative incidences of 29.8%, 8.6%, 8.3%, and 7.8%, respectively. Neuroblastoma survivors who were treated with multimodality therapy were more likely to develop a chronic health condition than survivors treated with surgery alone (RR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.6 to 3.0). Neuroblastoma survivors were less likely than siblings to have ever been employed (P = .04) or to be married (P < .001) and had a lower personal income (P = .009).

Conclusions

Neuroblastoma survivors have an increased rate of mortality and second malignant neoplasms, relative to the age- and sex-comparable US population, and of chronic health conditions, relative to their siblings, which underscores the need for long-term medical surveillance.

  K Wasilewski Masker , Q Liu , Y Yasui , W Leisenring , L. R Meacham , S Hammond , A. T Meadows , L. L Robison and A. C. Mertens
  Background

An increasing percentage of childhood cancer patients are surviving their disease, but there is limited research on late recurrence. We sought to estimate late recurrence rates for the most common pediatric cancers and to determine risk factors for late recurrence.

Methods

The incidence of late recurrences, or first recurrences that occurred more than 5 years after diagnosis, was analyzed for the most common pediatric cancers using data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a retrospective cohort of 5-year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancers who were diagnosed between 1970 and 1986. A total of 12 795 survivors with no history of recurrence within 5 years after their original cancer diagnosis were included in the analysis, with a total of 217 127 person-years of follow-up. Cumulative incidence of late recurrence at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after diagnosis was calculated using death as a competing risk. Adjusted relative rates of late recurrence were obtained using multivariable Poisson regression. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

Overall, 5-year survivors of pediatric cancers experienced a cumulative incidence of recurrent disease of 4.4%, 5.6%, and 6.2% at 10, 15, and 20 years, respectively. Cumulative incidence varied by diagnosis: Survivors of Ewing sarcoma and astrocytoma had the highest 20-year cumulative incidences at 13.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.4 to 16.5) and 14.4% (95% CI = 12.3 to 16.6), respectively. In multivariable analysis, the greatest risk factors for late recurrence included diagnosis, combination treatment with chemotherapy and radiation, earlier treatment era, and fewer years since diagnosis (P < .001 for all).

Conclusion

Late recurrence is a risk for some pediatric cancers. By understanding diagnosis-specific risks, patients, families, and their medical providers can be better informed of the probability of cure.

  J. P Ginsberg , P Goodman , W Leisenring , K. K Ness , P. A Meyers , S. L Wolden , S. M Smith , M Stovall , S Hammond , L. L Robison and K. C. Oeffinger
  Background

The survival of Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients has improved since the 1970s but is associated with considerable future health risks.

Methods

The study population consisted of long-term (≥5-year) survivors of childhood ES diagnosed before age 21 from 1970 to 1986. Cause-specific mortality was evaluated in eligible survivors (n = 568), and subsequent malignant neoplasms, chronic health conditions, infertility, and health status were evaluated in the subset participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (n = 403). Outcomes were compared with the US population and sibling control subjects (n = 3899). Logistic, Poisson, or Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustments for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and potential intrafamily correlation, were used. Statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

Cumulative mortality of ES survivors was 25.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1 to 28.9) 25 years after diagnosis. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 13.3 (95% CI = 11.2 to 15.8) overall, 23.1 (95% CI = 17.6 to 29.7) for women, and 10.0 (95% CI = 7.9 to 12.5) for men. The nonrecurrence-progression non-external cause standardized mortality ratio (subsequent non-ES malignant neoplasms and cardiac and pulmonary causes potentially attributable to ES treatment) was 8.7 (95% CI = 6.2 to 12.0). Twenty-five years after ES diagnosis, cumulative incidence of subsequent malignant neoplasms, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers, was 9.0% (95% CI = 5.8 to 12.2). Compared with siblings, survivors had an increased risk of severe, life-threatening, or disabling chronic health conditions (relative risk = 6.0, 95% CI = 4.1 to 9.0). Survivors had lower fertility rates (women: P = .005; men: P < .001) and higher rates of moderate to extreme adverse health status (P < .001).

Conclusion

Long-term survivors of childhood ES exhibit excess mortality and morbidity.

 
 
 
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