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Articles by L. L Greenhill
Total Records ( 3 ) for L. L Greenhill
  I Ivanov , R Bansal , X Hao , H Zhu , C Kellendonk , L Miller , J Sanchez Pena , A. M Miller , M. M Chakravarty , K Klahr , K Durkin , L. L Greenhill and B. S. Peterson
  Objective

The role of the thalamus in the genesis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains poorly understood. The authors used anatomical MRI to examine the morphology of the thalamus in youths with ADHD and healthy comparison youths.

Method

The authors examined 46 youths with ADHD and 59 comparison youths 8–18 years of age in a cross-sectional case-control study. Conventional volumes and measures of surface morphology of the thalamus served as the main outcome measures.

Results

A mixed-effects model comparing whole thalamic volumes revealed no significant differences between groups. Maps of the thalamic surface revealed significantly smaller regional volumes bilaterally in the pulvinar in youths with ADHD relative to comparison subjects. Post hoc analyses showed that ADHD patients who received stimulants (N=31) had larger conventional thalamic volumes than untreated youths with ADHD, and maps of the thalamic surface showed enlargement over the pulvinar in those receiving stimulants. Smaller regional volumes in the right lateral and left posterior thalamic surfaces were associated with more severe hyperactivity symptoms, whereas larger regional volumes in the right medial thalamic surfaces were associated with more severe symptoms of inattention.

Conclusion

These findings demonstrate reduced pulvinar volumes in youths with ADHD and indicate that this same area is relatively enlarged in patients treated with stimulants compared to those untreated. Associations of hyperactivity scores with smaller regional volumes on the lateral thalamic surface and inattention scores with larger regional volumes on the medial thalamic surface suggest the differential involvement of thalamic subcircuits in the pathogenesis of differing ADHD symptoms.

  L. J Sobel , R Bansal , T. V Maia , J Sanchez , L Mazzone , K Durkin , J Liu , X Hao , I Ivanov , A Miller , L. L Greenhill and B. S. Peterson
  Objective

Disturbances in the basal ganglia portions of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits likely contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors examined the morphologic features of the basal ganglia nuclei (caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus) in children with ADHD.

Method

A total of 104 individuals (combined-type ADHD patients: N=47; healthy comparison subjects: N=57), aged 7 to 18 years, were examined in a cross-sectional case-control study using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. Conventional volumes and the surface morphology for the basal ganglia were measured.

Results

Overall volumes were significantly smaller only in the putamen. Analysis of the morphological surfaces revealed significant inward deformations in each of the three nuclei, localized primarily in portions of these nuclei that are components of limbic, associative, and sensorimotor pathways in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits in which these nuclei reside. The more prominent these inward deformations were in the patient group, the more severe the ADHD symptoms. Surface analyses also demonstrated significant outward deformations of all basal ganglia nuclei in the ADHD children treated with stimulants compared with those ADHD youth who were untreated. These stimulant-associated enlargements were in locations similar to the reduced volumes detected in the ADHD group relative to the comparison group. The outward deformations associated with stimulant medications attenuated the statistical effects of the primary group comparisons.

Conclusions

These findings potentially represent evidence of anatomical dysregulation in the circuitry of the basal ganglia in children with ADHD and suggest that stimulants may normalize morphological features of the basal ganglia in children with the disorder.

  R. C Kessler , J. G Green , L. A Adler , R. A Barkley , S Chatterji , S. V Faraone , M Finkelman , L. L Greenhill , M. J Gruber , M Jewell , L. J Russo , N. A Sampson and D. L. Van Brunt
 

Context  Controversy exists about the appropriate criteria for a diagnosis of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Objective  To examine the structure and symptoms most predictive of DSM-IV adult ADHD.

Design  The data are from clinical interviews in enriched subsamples of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 131) and a survey of a large managed health care plan (n = 214). The physician-administered Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS) was used to assess childhood ADHD and expanded symptoms of current adult ADHD. Analyses examined the stability of symptoms from childhood to adulthood, the structure of adult ADHD, and the adult symptoms most predictive of current clinical diagnoses.

Setting  The ACDS was administered telephonically by clinical research interviewers with extensive experience in the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD.

Participants  An enriched sample of community respondents.

Main Outcome Measure  Diagnoses of DSM-IV /ACDS adult ADHD.

Results  Almost half of the respondents (45.7%) who had childhood ADHD continued to meet the full DSM-IV criteria for current adult ADHD, with 94.9% of these patients having current attention-deficit disorder and 34.6% having current hyperactivity disorder. Adult persistence was much greater for inattention than for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Additional respondents met the full criteria for current adult ADHD despite not having met the full childhood criteria. A 3-factor structure of adult symptoms included executive functioning (EF), inattention/hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Stepwise logistic regression found EF problems to be the most consistent and discriminating predictors of adult DSM-IV /ACDS ADHD.

Conclusions  These findings document the greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood but also show that inattention is not specific to ADHD because it is strongly associated with other adult mental disorders. In comparison, EF problems are more specific and consistently important predictors of DSM-IV adult ADHD despite not being in the DSM-IV, suggesting that the number of EF symptoms should be increased in the DSM-V/ICD-11.

 
 
 
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