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Articles by L. G Maxwell
Total Records ( 3 ) for L. G Maxwell
  K Zhu , S. S Devesa , H Wu , S. H Zahm , I Jatoi , W. F Anderson , G. E Peoples , L. G Maxwell , E Granger , J. F Potter and K. A. McGlynn

The U.S. active-duty military population may differ from the U.S. general population in its exposure to cancer risk factors and access to medical care. Yet, it is not known if cancer incidence rates differ between these two populations. We therefore compared the incidence of four cancers common in U.S. adults (lung, colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers) and two cancers more common in U.S. young adults (testicular and cervical cancers) in the military and general populations. Data from the Automated Central Tumor Registry (ACTUR) of the Department of Defense and the nine cancer registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) of the National Cancer Institute for the years 1990 to 2004 for persons with ages 20 to 59 years were analyzed. Incidence rates were significantly lower in the military population for colorectal cancer in White men, lung cancer in White and Black men and White women, and cervical cancer in Black women. In contrast, incidence rates of breast and prostate cancers were significantly higher in the military among Whites and Blacks. Incidence rates of testicular cancer did not differ between ACTUR and SEER. Although the numbers of diagnoses among military personnel were relatively small for temporal trend analysis, we found a more prominent increase in prostate cancer in ACTUR than in SEER. Overall, these results suggest that cancer patterns may differ between military and nonmilitary populations. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and explore contributing factors. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1740–5)

  W Yu , M Cline , L. G Maxwell , D Berrigan , G Rodriguez , A Warri and L. Hilakivi Clarke

The possibility that dietary vitamin D3 (VD3) exposure inhibits endometrial carcinogenesis in an animal model and modifies the enhanced risk of endometrial carcinoma associated with obesity was investigated. At 4 weeks of age, Pten+/– and wild-type mice were each divided into four treatment groups and fed AIN93G control diet, or AIN93G-based diet containing either 25,000 international units of VD3 per kilogram of diet, 58% fat to induce obesity (high fat), or high fat and 25,000 international units of VD3 per kilogram of diet. Mice were kept on these diets until they were sacrificed at week 28. Although VD3 did not affect endometrial cancer risk, it inhibited obesity-induced increase in endometrial lesions. Specifically, high-fat diet increased focal glandular hyperplasia with atypia and malignant lesions from 58% in the control diet–fed Pten+/– mice to 78% in obese mice. Dietary VD3 decreased the incidence of endometrial pathology in obese Pten+/– mice to 25% (P < 0.001). VD3 altered the endometrial expression of 25-hydroxylase, 1-hydroxylase, and vitamin D receptor in the wild-type and Pten+/– mice. Estrogen receptor- mRNA levels were higher (P < 0.014) and progesterone receptor protein levels in the luminal epithelium were lower (P < 0.04) in the endometrium of control diet–fed Pten+/– than wild-type mice, but the expression of these receptors was not affected by the dietary exposures. VD3 reversed the obesity-induced increase in osteopontin (P < 0.001) and significantly increased E-cadherin expression (P < 0.019) in the endometrium of obese Pten+/– mice. Our data confirm the known association between obesity and endometrial cancer risk. Dietary exposure to VD3 inhibited the carcinogenic effect of obesity on the endometrium. This protective effect was linked to a reduction in the expression of osteopontin and increase in E-cadherin. Cancer Prev Res; 3(10); 1246–58. ©2010 AACR.

  V. V Levina , B Nolen , Y Su , A. K Godwin , D Fishman , J Liu , G Mor , L. G Maxwell , R. B Herberman , M. J Szczepanski , M. E Szajnik , E Gorelik and A. E. Lokshin

There is increasing evidence that prolactin (PRL), a hormone/cytokine, plays a role in breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers via local production or accumulation. Elevated levels of serum PRL in ovarian and endometrial cancers have been reported, indicating a potential role for PRL in endometrial and ovarian carcinogenesis. In this study, we show that serum PRL levels are significantly elevated in women with a strong family history of ovarian cancer. We show dramatically increased expression of PRL receptor in ovarian and endometrial tumors as well as in endometrial hyperplasia, signifying the importance of PRL signaling in malignant and premalignant conditions. PRL mRNA was expressed in ovarian and endometrial tumors, indicating the presence of an autocrine loop. PRL potently induced proliferation in several ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines. Binding of PRL to its receptor was followed by rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase 1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, CREB, ATF-2, and p53 and activation of 37 transcription factors in ovarian and endometrial carcinoma cells. PRL also activated Ras oncogene in these cells. When human immortalized normal ovarian epithelial cells were chronically exposed to PRL, a malignant transformation occurred manifested by the acquired ability of transformed cells to form clones, grow in soft agar, and form tumors in severe combined immunodeficient-beige mice. Transformation efficiency was diminished by a Ras inhibitor, providing proof that PRL-induced transformation uses the Ras pathway. In summary, we present findings that indicate an important role for PRL in ovarian and endometrial tumorigenesis. PRL may represent a risk factor for ovarian and endometrial cancers. [Cancer Res 2009;69(12):5226–33]

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