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Articles by L. A Davidson
Total Records ( 4 ) for L. A Davidson
  C Zhao , I Ivanov , E. R Dougherty , T. J Hartman , E Lanza , G Bobe , N. H Colburn , J. R Lupton , L. A Davidson and R. S. Chapkin
 

We have developed novel molecular methods using a stool sample, which contains intact sloughed colon cells, to quantify colonic gene expression profiles. In this study, our goal was to identify diagnostic gene sets (combinations) for the noninvasive classification of different phenotypes. For this purpose, the effects of a legume-enriched, low glycemic index, high fermentable fiber diet was evaluated in subjects with four possible combinations of risk factors, including insulin resistance and a history of adenomatous polyps. In a randomized crossover design controlled feeding study, each participant (a total of 23; 5–12 per group) consumed the experimental diet (1.5 cups of cooked dry beans) and a control diet (isocaloric average American diet) for 4 weeks with a 3-week washout period between diets. Using prior biological knowledge, the complexity of feature selection was reduced to perform an exhaustive search on all allowable feature (gene) sets of size 3, and among these, 27 had (unbiased) error estimates of 0.15 or less. Linear discriminant analysis was successfully used to identify the best single genes and two- to three-gene combinations for distinguishing subjects with insulin resistance, a history of polyps, or exposure to a chemoprotective legume-rich diet. These results support our premise that gene products (RNA) isolated from stool have diagnostic value in terms of assessing colon cancer risk.

  L. A Davidson , N Wang , I Ivanov , J Goldsby , J. R Lupton and R. S. Chapkin
 

With respect to functional mapping of gene expression signatures, the steady-state mRNA expression level does not always accurately reflect the status of critical signaling proteins. In these cases, control is exerted at the epigenetic level of recruitment of mRNAs to polysomes, the factories of ribosomes that mediate efficient translation of many cellular messages. However, to date, a genome-wide perspective of the effect of carcinogen and chemoprotective bioactive diets on actively translated (polysomal) mRNA populations has not been done. Therefore, we used an established colon cancer model, i.e., the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rat, in combination with a chemoprotective diet extensively studied in our laboratory, i.e., n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, to characterize the molecular processes underlying the transformation of normal colonic epithelium. The number of genes affected by AOM treatment 10 weeks after carcinogen injection was significantly greater in the polysome RNA fraction compared with the total RNA fraction as determined using a high-density microarray platform. In particular, polysomal loading patterns of mRNAs associated with the Wnt-β catenin, phospholipase A2-eicosanoid and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling axes were significantly upregulated at a very early period of tumor development in the colon. These data indicate that translational alterations are far more extensive relative to transcriptional alterations in mediating malignant transformation. In contrast, transcriptional alterations were found to be more extensive relative to translational alterations in mediating the effects of diet. Therefore, during early stage colonic neoplasia, diet and carcinogen seem to predominantly regulate gene expression at multiple levels via unique mechanisms.

  L. A Davidson , N Wang , M. S Shah , J. R Lupton , I Ivanov and R. S. Chapkin
 

We have hypothesized that dietary modulation of intestinal non-coding RNA [microRNA (miRNA)] expression may contribute to the chemoprotective effects of nutritional bioactives (fish oil and pectin). To fully understand the effects of these agents on the expression of miRNAs, Sprague–Dawley rats were fed diets containing corn oil or fish oil with pectin or cellulose and injected with azoxymethane (AOM, a colon-specific carcinogen) or saline (control). Real-time polymerase chain reaction using miRNA-specific primers and Taq ManTM probes was carried out to quantify effects on miRNA expression in colonic mucosa. From 368 mature miRNAs assayed, at an early stage of cancer progression (10 week post AOM injection), let-7d, miR-15b, miR-107, miR-191 and miR-324-5p were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by diet x carcinogen interactions. Overall, fish oil fed animals exhibited the smallest number of differentially expressed miRNAs (AOM versus saline treatment). With respect to the tumor stage (34 week post AOM injection), 46 miRNAs were dysregulated in adenocarcinomas compared with normal mucosa from saline-injected animals. Of the 27 miRNAs expressed at higher (P < 0.05) levels in tumors, miR-34a, 132, 223 and 224 were overexpressed at >10-fold. In contrast, the expression levels of miR-192, 194, 215 and 375 were dramatically reduced (≤0.32-fold) in adenocarcinomas. These results demonstrate for the first time the utility of the rat AOM model and the novel role of fish oil in protecting the colon from carcinogen-induced miRNA dysregulation.

 
 
 
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