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Articles by L Miller
Total Records ( 2 ) for L Miller
  I Ivanov , R Bansal , X Hao , H Zhu , C Kellendonk , L Miller , J Sanchez Pena , A. M Miller , M. M Chakravarty , K Klahr , K Durkin , L. L Greenhill and B. S. Peterson
  Objective

The role of the thalamus in the genesis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains poorly understood. The authors used anatomical MRI to examine the morphology of the thalamus in youths with ADHD and healthy comparison youths.

Method

The authors examined 46 youths with ADHD and 59 comparison youths 8–18 years of age in a cross-sectional case-control study. Conventional volumes and measures of surface morphology of the thalamus served as the main outcome measures.

Results

A mixed-effects model comparing whole thalamic volumes revealed no significant differences between groups. Maps of the thalamic surface revealed significantly smaller regional volumes bilaterally in the pulvinar in youths with ADHD relative to comparison subjects. Post hoc analyses showed that ADHD patients who received stimulants (N=31) had larger conventional thalamic volumes than untreated youths with ADHD, and maps of the thalamic surface showed enlargement over the pulvinar in those receiving stimulants. Smaller regional volumes in the right lateral and left posterior thalamic surfaces were associated with more severe hyperactivity symptoms, whereas larger regional volumes in the right medial thalamic surfaces were associated with more severe symptoms of inattention.

Conclusion

These findings demonstrate reduced pulvinar volumes in youths with ADHD and indicate that this same area is relatively enlarged in patients treated with stimulants compared to those untreated. Associations of hyperactivity scores with smaller regional volumes on the lateral thalamic surface and inattention scores with larger regional volumes on the medial thalamic surface suggest the differential involvement of thalamic subcircuits in the pathogenesis of differing ADHD symptoms.

  A Hildebrand , P Komenda , L Miller , C Rigatto , M Verrelli , A. R Sood , C Sathianathan , M Reslerova , L Eng , A Eng and M. M. Sood
 

Background and objectives: First Nations (FN) patients on peritoneal dialysis experience poor outcomes. Whether discrepancies exist regarding the microbiology, rate of infections, and outcomes between FN and non-FN peoples remains unknown.

Design, setting, participants, & measures: All adult peritoneal dialysis patients (n = 727) from 1997 to 2007 residing in Manitoba, Canada, were included. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used as necessary. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the relationship of rates of exit site infections (ESIs) and peritonitis between FN and non-FN peoples.

Results: A total of 161 FN and 566 non-FN subjects were included in the analyses. The unadjusted relative rates of peritonitis and ESIs in FN subjects were 132.7 and 86.0/100 patient-years compared with 87.8 and 78.2/100 patient-years in non-FN populations, respectively. FN subjects were more likely to have culture-negative peritonitis (36.5 versus 20.8%, P < 0.0001) and Staphylococcus ESIs (54.1 versus 32.9%, P < 0.0001). The crude and adjusted rates of peritonitis were higher in FN subjects for total episodes and culture-negative and gram-negative peritonitis. Catheter removal because of peritonitis was similar in both groups (42.9 versus 38.1% for FN and non-FN subjects, respectively; P = 0.261).

Conclusions: FN patients experience higher rates of peritonitis and similar rates of ESIs compared with non-FN patients. Interventions to improve outcomes and prevent infections should specifically be targeted to the FN population.

 
 
 
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