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Articles by L Kopelovich
Total Records ( 5 ) for L Kopelovich
  V. E Steele , C. V Rao , Y Zhang , J Patlolla , D Boring , L Kopelovich , M. M Juliana , C. J Grubbs and R. A. Lubet

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have been highly effective in preventing colon, urinary bladder, and skin cancer preclinically, and also in clinical trials of colon adenoma formation. However, certain NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal ulceration and may increase cardiovascular events. Naproxen seems to cause the lowest cardiovascular events of the common NSAIDs other than aspirin. Nitric oxide (NO)-naproxen was tested based on the finding that adding a NO group to NSAIDs may help alleviate GI toxicity. In the azoxymethane-induced rat colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) model, naproxen administered at 200 and 400 ppm in the diet reduced mean ACFs in the colon by about 45% to 60%, respectively. NO-naproxen was likewise administered in the diet at roughly equimolar doses (300 and 600 ppm) and reduced total ACF by 20% to 40%, respectively. In the hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine rat urinary bladder cancer model, NO-naproxen was given at 183 or 550 ppm in the diet, and naproxen at 128 ppm. The NO-naproxen groups had 77% and 73% decreases, respectively, in the development of large urinary bladder tumors, whereas the 128 ppm naproxen group also showed a strong decrease (69%). If treatments were started 3 months after hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine, NO-naproxen (550 ppm) and naproxen (400 ppm) were also highly effective (86-94% decreases). In the methylnitrosourea-induced mammary cancer model in rats, NO-naproxen and naproxen showed nonsignificant inhibitions (12% and 24%) at 550 and 400 ppm, respectively. These data show that both naproxen and NO-naproxen are effective agents against urinary bladder and colon, but not mammary, carcinogenesis.

  J. Y Tang , M Aszterbaum , M Athar , F Barsanti , C Cappola , N Estevez , J Hebert , J Hwang , Y Khaimskiy , A Kim , Y Lu , P. L So , X Tang , M. A Kohn , C. E McCulloch , L Kopelovich , D. R Bickers and E. H. Epstein

In vitro and epidemiologic studies favor the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in preventing skin squamous photocarcinogenesis, but there has been relatively little study of their efficacy in preventing the more common skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) carcinogenesis. We first compared the relative anti-BCC effects of genetic deletion and NSAID pharmacologic inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in the skin of Ptch1+/– mice. We then assessed the effects of celecoxib on the development of BCCs in a 3-year, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial in 60 (PTCH1+/–) patients with the basal cell nevus syndrome. In Ptch1+/– mice, genetic deletion of COX1 or COX2 robustly decreased (75%; P < 0.05) microscopic BCC tumor burden, but pharmacologic inhibition with celecoxib reduced microscopic BCCs less efficaciously (35%; P < 0.05). In the human trial, we detected a trend for oral celecoxib reducing BCC burden in all subjects (P = 0.069). Considering only the 60% of patients with less severe disease (<15 BCCs at study entry), celecoxib significantly reduced BCC number and burden: subjects receiving placebo had a 50% increase in BCC burden per year, whereas subjects in the celecoxib group had a 20% increase (Pdifference = 0.024). Oral celecoxib treatment inhibited BCC carcinogenesis in PTCH1+/– mice and had a significant anti-BCC effect in humans with less severe disease. Cancer Prev Res; 3(1); OF1–11

  A Bellacosa , A. K Godwin , S Peri , K Devarajan , E Caretti , L Vanderveer , B Bove , C Slater , Y Zhou , M Daly , S Howard , K. S Campbell , E Nicolas , A. T Yeung , M. L Clapper , J. A Crowell , H. T Lynch , E Ross , L Kopelovich and A. G. Knudson

We hypothesized that cells bearing a single inherited "hit" in a tumor suppressor gene express an altered mRNA repertoire that may identify targets for measures that could delay or even prevent progression to carcinoma. We report here on the transcriptomes of primary breast and ovarian epithelial cells cultured from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and controls. Our comparison analyses identified multiple changes in gene expression, in both tissues for both mutations, which were validated independently by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Several of the differentially expressed genes had been previously proposed as cancer markers, including mammaglobin in breast cancer and serum amyloid in ovarian cancer. These findings show that heterozygosity for a mutant tumor suppressor gene can alter the expression profiles of phenotypically normal epithelial cells in a gene-specific manner; these detectable effects of "one hit" represent early molecular changes in tumorigenesis that may serve as novel biomarkers of cancer risk and as targets for chemoprevention. Cancer Prev Res; 3(1); 48–61

  S. M Lipkin , E. C Chao , V Moreno , L. S Rozek , H Rennert , M Pinchev , D Dizon , G Rennert , L Kopelovich and S. B. Gruber

Genetic variation in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, modifies the effect of statins on serum cholesterol levels. Long-term use of statins is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in some, but not all, studies. We genotyped variants in 40 candidate genes important for cholesterol synthesis and metabolism in a population-based case-control study of CRC involving 2,138 incident cases and 2,049 population-based controls. We identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the HMGCR gene that significantly modified the protective association between statins and CRC risk. Compared with nonusers, the unadjusted odds ratio of CRC among statin users with the A/A genotype of rs12654264 in HMGCR was 0.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.51) and among statin users with the T/T genotype was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-1.06; P-interaction = 0.0012). This genetic variant (A/A genotype of rs12654264) also was associated with lower serum levels of low-density lipoprotein among all cases and controls. In colon cancer cell lines, the reduction in cholesterol levels after statin treatment was substantially stronger in cells carrying the A/A genotype, and this difference was related to alternative splicing involving the HMGCR statin-binding domain. We anticipate that these data may advance the development of personalized statin use for reducing the risk of cancer as well as cardiovascular disease among the approximately 25 million people currently using statins worldwide. Cancer Prev Res; 3(5); 597–603. ©2010 AACR.

  O Itano , K Yang , K Fan , N Kurihara , H Shinozaki , S Abe , B Jin , C Gravaghi , W Edelmann , L Augenlicht , L Kopelovich , R Kucherlapati , S Lamprecht and M. Lipkin

We have previously reported that sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, inhibited tumor formation in the small intestine but increased tumors in the colon of ApcMin/+ mice, a model of human familial adenomatous polyposis. To further explore intestinal regional responses, we studied effects of sulindac on additional gene-targeted mouse models of human intestinal tumorigenesis; these were (i) Apc1638N/+ mouse (chain termination mutation in exon 15 of the Apc gene); (ii) Mlh1+/– mouse (DNA mismatch repair deficiency, a mouse model of human hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) and (iii) double-heterozygous Mlh1+/–Apc1638N/+ mutant mouse. Mice were fed AIN-76A control diet with or without 0.02% sulindac for 6 months. Intestinal regional tumor incidence, multiplicity, volume and degree of inflammation were used as end points. The results showed the following: (i) sulindac inhibited tumor development in the small intestine of Apc1638N/+ mice; (ii) in contrast, sulindac increased tumors in the small intestine of Mlh1 mutant mice, a neoplastic effect which persisted in heterozygous compound Mlh1+/–Apc1638N/+ mutant mice; (iii) sulindac increased tumors in the cecum of all mice regardless of genetic background; (iv) sulindac decreased inflammation in the small intestine of Apc1638N/+ mice, but it increased inflammation in the small intestine of Mlh1+/ mice and Mlh1+/–Apc1638N/+ mice and (v) sulindac enhanced inflammation in the cecum of all mutant mice. Findings indicate that the effects of sulindac in the intestine of these mutant mouse models are probably related to genetic background and appear to be associated with its inflammatory-inducing response.

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