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Articles by L Jiang
Total Records ( 4 ) for L Jiang
  L Jiang , J Li and L. Song
 

Bmi-1, a polycomb gene family member, plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, cell immortalization, and cell senescence. Recently, numerous studies have demonstrated that Bmi-1 is involved in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this biological process remains largely unclear. In the present review, we summarized the function of Bmi-1 as a transcriptional regulator of gene expression, with particular reference to stem cells.

  Z Fu , M Wang , M Gucek , J Zhang , J Wu , L Jiang , R. E Monticone , B Khazan , R Telljohann , J Mattison , S Sheng , R. N Cole , G Spinetti , G Pintus , L Liu , F. D Kolodgie , R Virmani , H Spurgeon , D. K Ingram , A. D Everett , E. G Lakatta and J. E. Van Eyk
 

Advancing age induces aortic wall thickening that results from the concerted effects of numerous signaling proteins, many of which have yet to be identified. To search for novel proteins associated with aortic wall thickening, we have performed a comprehensive quantitative proteomic study to analyze aortic proteins from young (8 months) and old (30 months) rats and identified 50 proteins that significantly change in abundance with aging. One novel protein, the milk fat globule protein epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8), increases 2.3-fold in abundance in old aorta. Transcription and translation analysis demonstrated that aortic MFG-E8 mRNA and protein levels increase with aging in several mammalian species including humans. Dual immunolabeling shows that MFG-E8 colocalizes with both angiotensin II and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 within vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of the thickened aged aortic wall. Exposure of early passage VSMCs from young aorta to angiotensin II markedly increases MFG-E8 and enhances invasive capacity to levels observed in VSMCs from old rats. Treatment of VSMCs with MFG-E8 increases MCP-1 expression and VSMCs invasion that are inhibited by the MCP-1 receptor blocker vCCI. Silencing MFG-E8 RNA substantially reduces MFG-E8 expression and VSMCs invasion capacity. The data indicate that arterial MFG-E8 significantly increases with aging and is a pivotal relay element within the angiotensin II/MCP-1/VSMC invasion signaling cascade. Thus, targeting of MFG-E8 within this signaling axis pathway is a potential novel therapy for the prevention and treatment of the age-associated vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  L Jiang , R. I Herzog , G. F Mason , R. A de Graaf , D. L Rothman , R. S Sherwin and K. L. Behar
  OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to characterize the changes in brain metabolism caused by antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia under euglycemic and hypoglycemic conditions in a rat model and to test the hypothesis that recurrent hypoglycemia changes the brain's capacity to utilize different energy substrates.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Rats exposed to recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycemia for 3 days (3dRH rats) and untreated controls were subject to the following protocols: [2-13C]acetate infusion under euglycemic conditions (n = 8), [1-13C]glucose and unlabeled acetate coinfusion under euglycemic conditions (n = 8), and [2-13C]acetate infusion during a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp (n = 8). In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to monitor the rise of13C-labeling in brain metabolites for the calculation of brain metabolic fluxes using a neuron-astrocyte model.

RESULTS

At euglycemia, antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia increased whole-brain glucose metabolism by 43 ± 4% (P < 0.01 vs. controls), largely due to higher glucose utilization in neurons. Although acetate metabolism remained the same, control and 3dRH animals showed a distinctly different response to acute hypoglycemia: controls decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) flux in astrocytes by 64 ± 20% (P = 0.01), whereas it increased by 37 ± 3% in neurons (P = 0.01). The 3dRH animals decreased PDH flux in both compartments (–75 ± 20% in astrocytes, P < 0.001, and –36 ± 4% in neurons, P = 0.005). Thus, acute hypoglycemia reduced total brain tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in 3dRH animals (–37 ± 4%, P = 0.001), but not in controls.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings suggest that after antecedent hypoglycemia, glucose utilization is increased at euglycemia and decreased after acute hypoglycemia, which was not the case in controls. These findings may help to identify better methods of preserving brain function and reducing injury during acute hypoglycemia.

  G. E Liu , Y Hou , B Zhu , M. F Cardone , L Jiang , A Cellamare , A Mitra , L. J Alexander , L. L Coutinho , M. E Dell'Aquila , L. C Gasbarre , G Lacalandra , R. W Li , L. K Matukumalli , D Nonneman , L. C. d. A Regitano , T. P. L Smith , J Song , T. S Sonstegard , C. P Van Tassell , M Ventura , E. E Eichler , T. G McDaneld and J. W. Keele
 

Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. Here, we describe the first systematic and genome-wide analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in modern domesticated cattle using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The array CGH panel included 90 animals from 11 Bos taurus, three Bos indicus, and three composite breeds for beef, dairy, or dual purpose. We identified over 200 candidate CNV regions (CNVRs) in total and 177 within known chromosomes, which harbor or are adjacent to gains or losses. These 177 high-confidence CNVRs cover 28.1 megabases or ~1.07% of the genome. Over 50% of the CNVRs (89/177) were found in multiple animals or breeds and analysis revealed breed-specific frequency differences and reflected aspects of the known ancestry of these cattle breeds. Selected CNVs were further validated by independent methods using qPCR and FISH. Approximately 67% of the CNVRs (119/177) completely or partially span cattle genes and 61% of the CNVRs (108/177) directly overlap with segmental duplications. The CNVRs span about 400 annotated cattle genes that are significantly enriched for specific biological functions, such as immunity, lactation, reproduction, and rumination. Multiple gene families, including ULBP, have gone through ruminant lineage-specific gene amplification. We detected and confirmed marked differences in their CNV frequencies across diverse breeds, indicating that some cattle CNVs are likely to arise independently in breeds and contribute to breed differences. Our results provide a valuable resource beyond microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the full dimension of genetic variability for future cattle genomic research.

 
 
 
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