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Articles by L Andrade
Total Records ( 2 ) for L Andrade
  L. P Cinelli , L Andrade , A. P Valente and P. A. S. Mourao

The sea urchin eggs are surrounded by a jelly coat, which contains sulfated polysaccharides with unique structures. These molecules are responsible for inducing the species-specific acrosome reaction, an obligatory event for the binding of sperm and fusion with the egg. The mechanism of biosynthesis of these sulfated polysaccharides is virtually unknown. The egg jelly of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter contains a simple 2-sulfated, 3-linked -L-galactan. Here, we pulse labeled the sea urchin ovary in vitro with 35S-sulfate to follow the biosynthesis of the sulfated -L-galactan. We found that the ovary contains a 2,6-disulfated, 3-linked -L-galactan, which incorporates 35S-sulfate more avidly than the 2-sulfated isoform. The 2,6-disulfated -L-galactan was purified by anion exchange chromatography, analyzed by electrophoresis and characterized by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. We also investigated the location of the sulfated polysaccharides on the oocytes using histochemical procedures. The stain revealed high amounts of sulfated polysaccharide in mature oocytes and accessory cells. The amount of intracellular sulfated polysaccharides decreased as oocytes are spawned. We speculate that 2,6-disulfated galactan is initially synthesized in the ovary and that 6-sulfate ester is removed when the polysaccharide is secreted into the egg jelly. Similar events related to remodeling of sulfated polysaccharides have been reported in other biological systems.

  S Lee , A Tsang , R. C Kessler , R Jin , N Sampson , L Andrade , E. G Karam , M. E. M Mora , K Merikangas , Y Nakane , D. G Popovici , J Posada Villa , R Sagar , J. E Wells , Z Zarkov and M. Petukhova


The epidemiology of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in the community is largely unknown.


To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in a large cross-national community sample.


The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI version 3.0) was used to examine the prevalence, severity, comorbidity, impairment, suicidality, sociodemographics, childhood adversity and treatment of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in ten countries (n = 54 257).


The 12-month prevalence of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder was 0.3%. Roughly a third and two-fifths of participants with lifetime and 12-month bipolar disorder respectively met criteria for rapid cycling. Compared with the non-rapid-cycling, rapid-cycling bipolar disorder was associated with younger age at onset, higher persistence, more severe depressive symptoms, greater impairment from depressive symptoms, more out-of-role days from mania/hypomania, more anxiety disorders and an increased likelihood of using health services. Associations regarding childhood, family and other sociodemographic correlates were less clear cut.


The community epidemiological profile of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder confirms most but not all current clinically based knowledge about the illness.

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