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Articles by Kusnandar Anggadiredja
Total Records ( 6 ) for Kusnandar Anggadiredja
  Kusnandar Anggadiredja , Anggraini Barlian , Yangie Dwi Marga Pinang and Dian Anggraeny
  Nicotine is an addictive substance with detrimental effects on health. Several measures have been developed to help addicts quit smoking, yet the rate of increase in number of smokers does not seem to have slowed down. The current study was aimed to investigate the effect of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) on nicotine dependence and relapse using Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm in rats. The rats were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: place conditioning without drug treatment before nicotine (0.5 mg kg-1, i.p.); place conditioning with oral VCO at 5 mL kg-1 or the reference drug diclofenac (3.2 mg kg-1, i.p.) 30 min prior to each nicotine treatment. The conditioning training lasted for 5 days, followed by conditioning test on the following day. In different batch of rats, the conditioning test continued with a 7-day nicotine-free period and the rats were then challenged on the following day with 0.5 mg kg-1 nicotine intraperitoneally. VCO and diclofenac were given 30 minutes before nicotine challenge to test their effects. Results showed that VCO and diclofenac significantly decreased (p<0.01) the preference to nicotine-paired compartment to those of preconditioning levels in both preference tests. Taken together, results of the present study indicate that VCO prevents nicotine dependence as well as relapse. The results further lay foundation for the development of potent agents for nicotine dependence.
  Anggraini Barlian , Kusnandar Anggadiredja , Astuti Kusumorini and Utami Ekawati
  Frog skin histology has been largely explored, particularly in relation to the skin-derived secretions, among which a number of peptides have shown potential medicinal applications. Duttaphrynus melanostictus is a frog species ubiquitous in Indonesia; however, there is only limited information with regard to skin structural characteristics as well as its potential use. The present work explored the structure of the frog skin and further assessed antifungal activity of its extract. Structural studies were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) assays while antifungal evaluations were performed by testing the activity of the lyophilisate of skin extract against the pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Results of the structural studies revealed features common to frog species, in particular an extensive distribution of secretory glands. In addition, we observed a flattened, irregular-shaped structure, believed to be secretory ‘vesicle’ of the mucous gland, considered distinct to D. melanostictus. Antifungal studies demonstrated equipotent activity of the lyophilisate against all test fungi. Taken together, results of the present work shed some light on the structural characteristic of D. melanostictus frog skin and further open an opportunity for the development of alternative antifungal agents.
  Anggraini Barlian , Kusnandar Anggadiredja and Astuti Kusumorini
  The treatment of fungal infection poses particular challenge for the medical field. Thus, the development of antifungal agents has only been progressed slowly, partly due to the considerably high toxicity of the agents. We have previously demonstrated the antifungal effect of the skin extract from Duttaphrynus melanostictus frog. In the current study, the antifungal effect was particularly investigated in the lyophilisate of granular gland secretion of the frog skin against the pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Mycrosporum gypseum and Trychophyton mentagrophytes. Antifungal test of the lyophilisate was performed by agar diffusion method, while the study of its mechanism of action was carried out under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The lyophilisate was shown to be equipotent against all test fungi in vitro. Mean while, SEM assay revealed that the lyophilisate induced detrimental effect on cellular membrane integrity as indicated by the formation of pores in all test fungi and the shrinkage of hyphal and microconidial structures in M. gypseum and T. mentagrophytes, possibly due to the leakage of essential intracellular components. The results open an opportunity for developing effective alternative antifungal agents, particularly in the face of the emergence of dug-resistant fungi.
  Anggraini Barlian , Kusnandar Anggadiredja and Indah Prihatin
  Indonesia as tropical country is endemic to various infectious diseases, including that affecting the skin due to fungi infection. In nature, the eggshell, present as hard or soft shell, protects the embryo from microorganism infection. Turtle produces soft shells, which is very unique in that it does not contain albumin. In nature, the turtle eggshell has to cope with high humidity, so it is assumed that turtle soft shell has potent antifungal activity. This study investigated the potency of the eggshell extract from green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) as an antifungal against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Aspergillus brasiliensis. Protein extraction was carried out with dialysis followed by lyophilization and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Antifungal activity assay was conducted by Dilution Plating method with nystatin as a standard drug. The possible mechanism of antifungal activity was assessed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fungal growth was inhibited by 8% w/v or 8x104 ppm extract, equivalent to 0.53 ppm nystatin against Candida albicans, 0.55 ppm against Microsporum gypseum, 0.36 ppm against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and 0.35 ppm against Aspergillus brasiliensis. The SDS-PAGE showed that the turtle eggshell extract had 6 proteins with molecular weight 20; 45, 50, 66, 80 and 116 kDa. This study showed that 8% w/v green turtle eggshell extract has inhibitory activity against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Aspergillus brasiliensis, as also proven by SEM results. Taken together, the present results showed that turtle eggshell extract has antifungal potency that could be developed as antifungal drug.
  Lia Amalia , Kusnandar Anggadiredja , Sukrasno , Irda Fidrianny and Rini Inggriani
  The wild cosmos (Cosmos caudatus Kunth, Asteraceae) is one of the vegetables mostly consumed by rural people of Central and East Java Provinces of Indonesia and those of the Malay Peninsula. Yet, it has not been widely used medicinally. The leaf has distinctive taste as well as odor and contains high level of flavonoid, especially flavonol and flavon glycosides which have potent antioxidant activity. In this study, in an attempt to explore the antihypertensive effect, wild cosmos leaf aqueous extract was tested in rats treated with adrenaline and sodium chloride. The frequency of heart rate and amplitude of stroke volume were measured using the non-invasive tail cuff method. The extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 showed similar potency to that of 9 mg kg-1 atenonol, in lowering both parameters, induced by adrenaline. However, after sodium chloride, the extract only suppressed the amplitude and this effect was comparable to that of 0.45 mg kg-1 hydrochlorothiazide and 13.5 mg kg-1 captopril. Besides cardiac effects, the extract also demonstrated diuretic activity which was comparable to that of 1.8 mg kg-1 furosemide. Taken together, results of present study suggest that wild cosmos leaf extract have antihypertensive effect which may be related, at least in part, to the decreased cardiac output and induction of diuresis. The results may further indicate that consumption of wild cosmos leaf in diet is beneficial for hypertensive patients.
  Sukrasno Sukrasno , Irda Fidriany , Kusnandar Anggadiredja , Wafiq Auliana Handayani and Khairul Anam
  The aim of this study was to search for the optimal method to prepare crude drug with the highest flavonoid content from fresh Cosmos caudatus leaves. Flavonoid contents of Cosmos caudatus leaves were studied in relation to the processes involved in food and herbal medicine preparation. Quercitrin and rutin were identified as the major flavonoid component of the leaves. The flavonoid content substantially increased during boiling in water. This increase was not caused by the enhancement of extractability but more likely to be due to the endogenous biotransformation of precursor or intermediates into flavonoids. However, heating of fresh leaves in an air oven at elevated temperature from 30 to 100°C decreased the total flavonoid content except at 40°C by which the total flavonoid content increased approximately by 30%. Pre-heating of leaves at 60°C substantially reduced flavonoid content to only 30% compared to control and further drying at 60°C left the flavonoid to only 12% compared to control. The experiments suggested that drying temperature affects flavonoid content of Cosmos leaves and the highest content might be obtained when the leaves is prepared by drying at 40° C.
 
 
 
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