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Articles by Kumaragurubaran Karthik
Total Records ( 9 ) for Kumaragurubaran Karthik
  Mahmoud Alagawany , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mayada Ragab Farag , Ruchi Tiwari , Swati Sachan , Kumaragurubaran Karthik and Kuldeep Dhama
  Protein plays an important role in the diet formulation of poultry to maintain/improve growth, feed utilization, immune functions and maximize productive performance, ensure bird welfare, as well as mitigate environmental risks and pollution by optimizing the use of this nutrient. Also, proteins assist in the biosynthesis of tissues and have many biological functions for growth and renewal of the body. Moreover, proteins exist in forms of hormones and enzymes which play crucial roles in the physiological processes in the body. Layer birds have low dietary Crude Protein (CP) requirements, thus identification of the optimum level of CP in layer diets, for either maximizing productive performance or economic returns of laying hens, requires more and more information/knowledge about birds needs of protein and its impacts on performance parameters and environmental pollution. This biomolecule plays active role in physiological dynamics, in stabilizing the immune barrier and to drive the forces for maintaining the enhanced production performance of layers. The broad goal of the current review is to highlight the importance of CP-diet and its positive and negative effects on body weight change, performance, feed and nutrient utilization, egg production parameters, egg quality criteria as well as chemical composition of egg and its fractions, egg shell quality, blood biochemical parameters, immune function, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen pollution. The discussed concepts and knowledge would be useful for both backyard poultry rearers and poultry industry holders by optimizing the level of crude protein in the fed diet and will definitely be helpful for gaining the economic profits and consumers satisfaction.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Ruchi Tiwari , Rifat Ullah Khan , Sandip Chakraborty , Marappan Gopi , Kumaragurubaran Karthik , Mani Saminathan , Perumal Arumugam Desingu and Lakshmi Tulasi Sunkara
  A substantial growth in poultry industry has been observed mainly due to exploitation of various modern growth promoting strategies and appropriate disease preventive and control measures. The present review describes the various essential growth promoters and novel feed supplements, their salient features, classical examples, bioactive principles, pharmacological and modes of action and useful applications for improving poultry production and health. It highlights antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, vitamins and minerals, oils, enzymes, amino acids, betaine, carnitine, L-arginine, ractopamine, nucleotides, electrolytes, herbs, panchgavya elements. Apart from boosting poultry production and safeguarding general health of birds some of these have been found to possess beneficial immunomodulatory and stress relieving properties and also have added advantages to help produce lean meat and designer poultry products taking into account health awareness and preferences of the consumers. It is a comprehensive and an updated review compilation focusing the salient aspects of various important growth promoters and feed additives having potential applications to promote poultry production and health. Due care has been taken to cover the ongoing trends and recent advances with a perspective vision and their holistic usages and beneficial applications in poultry production system. The contents of the review will be highly useful for researchers, scientists, pharmacists, veterinary professionals, pharmaceutical industries, poultry producers/owners and poultry industry as well as for perspective applications in livestock industry. It would enrich the knowledge of researchers and help the scientific community to conduct more research on such daily essential requirements for boosting poultry production in a better way. It will also shed light regarding the management and production aspects of poultry especially broilers which will enlighten farmers and poultry producers for better economic growth.
  Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mayada Ragab Farag , Ruchi Tiwari , Kumaragurubaran Karthik and Kuldeep Dhama
  In the present era of emerging antibiotic/drug resistance against pathogenic organisms and food safety concerns of their toxic residues as well as slow process of discovering newer antibiotics, there is a dire need for using natural and effective alternatives. In this regard, herbal and aromatic plants and/or their extracts are gaining attention of worldwide researchers. Studies on Nigella sativa (black cumin) seeds show promising results that it could provide a suitable alternative to antibiotics as growth promoter and safeguard various health issues of animals and humans. The seeds of black cumin with thymoquinone as its main active constituent are mainly used for medicinal purposes and could be used as food spice and nutritional supplements. These have beneficial antinociceptive, antimicrobial, growth enhancing, antiparasitic, immunomoulatory, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and bronchodilating effects. Blood pressure regulating as well as bile flow stimulating effects have also been observed. Black cumin seeds have been used widely against several diseases, disorders and ailments of humans and animals including bronchial asthma, cough, bronchitis, lung inflammation, microbial infections, fever, dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, gastric ulcers, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, alzheimer disease, headache, diabetes, allergy, obesity, back pain, skin diseases, eczema, jaundice, anorexia, conjunctivitis, dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, intrinsic hemorrhages, amenorrhea and immune disorders, which altogether indicate their potent therapeutic values and biomedicinal perspectives. The aim of this study is to provide comprehensive and recent information about the nutritional, healthical, pharmaceutical, therapeutic and biomedical applications and prospects of Nigella sativa seeds in feeding humans, animals and poultry.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Kumaragurubaran Karthik , Rajneesh Rana , Yashpal Singh Malik , Kuldeep Dhama and Sunil Kumar Joshi
  Microbial activity is considered as an important cause for the manifestation of food spoilage. The detection of chemical signals sharing information between food spoilage bacteria present in food products has initiated a new dimension to formulate an alternate preventive strategy against these spoilage bacteria. Quorum sensing or cell-to-cell communication is employed by a diverse group of bacteria talking to each other through the signaling autoinducer molecules. Based on potential of these molecules, Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors (QSI) or Quorum Quenching (QQ) compounds can be used as novel biopreservatives which abrupt the virulence of food spoilage microbes to uphold the nutritional quality of packaged and Ready To Eat (RTE) food and food by products. Through the pharmaceutical interventions and molecular mechanisms of intracellular, intercellular and interspecies communication via signaling molecules, preventive strategies can be formulated for production of pathogen free food products. Though identification of species specific signaling pathways is a challenging task for the food microbiologists and pharamacists but proper implementation of QSI molecules would be helpful for the food manufacturers in food processing plants through critical follow ups of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) to maintain the food quality and sound public health. This review draws the attention of researchers involved in dairy microbiology, meat and fish processing industries, packaging channels and neutraceuticals and pharmaceutical industries to explore the library of QS and QSI molecules to put forward and apply them as bio-preservatives for production of safe food products to meet the global food demands of growing world population.
  Mohammad Jalil Zorriehzahra , Ruchi Tiwari , Swati Sachan , Kumaragurubaran Karthik , Yashpal Singh Malik , Maryam Dadar , Muhammad Sarwar , Maryam Sayab and Kuldeep Dhama
  In the current scenario of increasing and emerging drug resistance in various microbial pathogens, traditional antibiotics are becoming less effective and thus globally research has focused on developing alternative therapeutic regimens having efficient germ killing abilities. The leading alternatives include use of phages, prebiotics, probiotics, cytokines, avian egg yolk antibodies, toll like receptors, medical herbs and various other immunomodulatory/immunotherapeutic approaches. Out of these valuable therapies, the application of oral passive immunization using avian egg yolk antibodies (Immunoglobulin Y, IgY) offers promising future avenues for designing and developing novel prophylactic and treatment strategies against infectious diseases in both humans and animals, particularly countering the enteric pathogens. Hitherto studies confirm beneficial applications of IgY antibodies in animals (Calves, lamb and goat, cats and dogs), poultry and humans, however such studies in fish and aquatic animals are comparatively less. The present study presents as overview on avian egg antibodies, their salient features, advantages and limitations and then describes the potential therapeutic applications of IgY for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases of fish and aquatic animal species, as well as speculating the future prospects of upcoming IgY technology. Taking into account the valuable prophylactic and therapeutic applications of IgY antibodies, further explorative research in this area could pave way for designing and developing effective pharmaceuticals and treatment options for various infectious diseases of fish/aquaculture animals as well as for safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals.
  Muhammad Saeed , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Muhammad Naveed , Muhammad Asif Arain , Muhammad Arif , Rab Nawaz Soomro , MohibUllah Kakar , Robina Manzoor , Ruchi Tiwari , Rekha Khandia , Ashok Munjal , Kumaragurubaran Karthik , Kuldeep Dhama , Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal and Chao Sun
  Green tea is an important herb and its products are extensively used in the traditional Chinese medicinal system through various formulations. Several reports have revealed its beneficial usage and medicinal aspects for various ailments. Consumption of green tea has gained special attention and popularity in various sectors of the modern era of changing lifestyle. This review aimed to extend the current knowledge on the modes of action and beneficial applications of green tea in humans and animals for safeguarding different health issues. The nutritional, immunological, pharmacological and physiological functionalities of green tea are because of the available bioactive components like caffeine, L-theanine, polyphenols/flavonoids and others. It possesses multi-beneficial potential in treating and preventing various disorders of animals and humans, as well as promoting animal (dairy, piggery and goatry) and poultry industry. The present review provides insights on the modes of action and beneficial applications of green tea, which will be useful for nutritionists, pharmacists, physiologists, researchers, veterinarians and animal and poultry producers. Future research emphasis and promotional avenues are needed to explore its potential therapeutic applications for designing appropriate pharmaceuticals, complementary medicines and effective drugs to popularize and propagate its multidimensional health benefits.
  Ashok Munjal , Rekha Khandia , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Kumaragurubaran Karthik and Kuldeep Dhama
  The recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections has changed the ZIKV status from a very mild self-limiting febrile virus to a highly pathogenic virus causing visual impairment, autoimmune response against myelin layer and microcephaly in affected fetus. The serious social impact on society has drawn the attention of the researchers globally. The search for an effective vaccine against ZIKV is on the way. Several researches as well as commercial organizations are indulged in developing vaccine for prophylactic and treatment purposes. In the present review, various vaccine strategies have been described including inactivated, attenuated, DNA, subunit, recombinant viral vectored and nucleic acid based vaccines. The vaccines developed should be clinically tested in animal models, which are susceptible for ZIKV infection like Stat2-/- mice, A129 (IFNAR-/-) Mice, Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) mice or Rhesus macaques. Efficacy of each vaccination strategy is required to be meticulously evaluated. The use of vaccinomics could also help to discover appropriate vaccine candidate to induce the effective immune response. DNA and subunit vaccines may not be that much beneficial in endemic areas due to poor immunogenic potential; however, by adjuvanting or using specific devise to deliver DNA vaccine construct, efficacy may be improved. Investigations exploring the cross reaction between the already existing immunity and immunity against newly developed vaccines would be of interest and useful for researchers. Further, researches should target whether vaccines and/or antibodies against ZIKV can induce Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE) resulting in subsequent enhancement of flavivirus infection. There are utmost requirements of sufficient resources in terms of infrastructure, funding, manpower, along with producing effective and safe ZIKV vaccine in commercial basis.
  Rekha Khandia , Ashok Munjal , Arvind Kumar , Gaurav Singh , Kumaragurubaran Karthik and Kuldeep Dhama
  The intrinsic property of Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPP) is to deliver various molecules including nucleic acids, large plasmids, therapeutic drugs, imaging molecules, liposomes, nano-molecules to various cell and tissues, which indicates about the potential of CPP as therapeutic vehicle molecules. These are easy to prepare, well characterized, versatile and have ability to link with bioactive cargo through covalent and non-covalent bonds. The interaction between cargo and CPP is highly dependent on physiochemical properties of CPP including size, pH and presence of basic residues in the carrier peptide. Primary mechanism of transport of CPP is endocytosis; however, evidences of endocytosis independent mechanisms including carpet model, inverted micelle model, barrel stave pore model and toroidal pore model are also present. Though, the natural CPP are often non- selective and passive, these may be tuned to become specific and targeted by conjugating them with functional groups and chemicals. In fact several natural CPPs such as penetratin, Tat, polyarginies etc have been modified to achieve maximum penetration and desired characters. Linear CPPs may be brought into multi-branched topology to give dendrimeric structures having more cell penetrating capacity, lower toxicity and hemolysis and higher serum stability. Site-specific targeting of CPP might be helpful in achieving several goals including enhancement in protein expression, gene silencing, formation of pleuripotent cells, reduction in inflammation and apoptosis, trans-epithelial transport, neuroprotection, ischemia treatment, treating insulin disorders, delivery of nucleic acids and agricultural pest control. The present review encompasses the detailed information regarding different modes of entry of CPP inside the cells, designing and classes of such peptides, along with theirs versatile therapeutic applications.
  Mayada Ragab Farag , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Muhammad Arif , Tugay Ayasan , Kuldeep Dhama , Amlan Patra and Kumaragurubaran Karthik
  Chromium (Cr) is one of the essential minerals which is required for improving productive performance in poultry due to its important functions in metabolism, growth and reduction of lipid and protein peroxidation. Under heat stress conditions, Cr plays a crucial role in poultry nutrition, production and health as well as enhances growth performance and quality of eggs in meat and egg type chickens, respectively. Supplementation of Cr may increase body weight gain, improve feed efficiency and there is also increase in carcass yield of broilers. Chromium is also a potent hypocholesteremic and antioxidant agent. The beneficial impacts of Cr have been linked with improved the metabolism and immune system. Dietary addition of Cr has promising impacts on the immune system through increasing relative weights of lymphoid organ such as thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius, declined heterophil/ lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, enhancing the Cell Mediated Immune (CMI) response and improving the antibody response versus the infectious diseases. Dietary supplementation of Cr may stimulate the secretion of digestive enzymes by improving the functions of liver and pancreas. Chromium present in many forms differs greatly in stability and oxidation states; therefore the added forms and concentrations should be managed well. Further, the increase in Cr dose in the diet could produce hazardous and toxic influences in chickens as well. This paper illustrates the positive and negative impacts of Cr including its physical and chemical proprieties, practical applications in poultry nutrition, production, enhancing immunity and health and a special reference to its toxic effects.
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