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Articles by Koshy Philip
Total Records ( 4 ) for Koshy Philip
  Koshy Philip , Sri Nurestri Abd Malek , Wirakarnain Sani , Sim Kae Shin , Saravana Kumar , Hong Sok Lai , Lee Guan Serm and Syarifah N.S.A. Rahman
  Background: Dyes and pigments are widely used, mostly in the textiles, paper, plastics, leather, food and cosmetic industry to color products. The release of colored wastewater from these industries may present an eco-toxic hazard. Various techniques like precipitation, ion exchange, chemical oxidation, and adsorption have been used for the removal of toxic pollutant from, wastewater. Methylene blue (MB) is selected as a model compound for evaluating the potential of tripoli to remove dye from wastewaters. Objective: In this study, Jordanian low- cost locally available tripoli was studied for its potential use as an adsorbent for removal of a cationic dye (methylene blue,MB) from aqueous solution. Factors affecting adsorption, such as , initial dye concentration, pH, contact time , adsorbent dose and temperature, were evaluated.The equilibrium of adsorption was modelled by using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, the kinetic parameters and intraparticle diffusion were also then determined for the methylene blue-tripoli system. Methodology: The raw tripoli samples were kindly supplied by the Authority of Natural Resources (Jordan, Amman). X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) analysis was carried out with PANalytical X-ray, Philips Analytical. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR) analysis was conducted. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of tripoli was estimated using The copper bis-ethylenediamine complex method. The specific surface area of tripoli was estimated using Sears’ method by agitating 1.5 g of the tripoli sample in 100 ml of diluted hydrochloric acid of a pH = 3. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out by adding 0.5 g of tripoli in a series of 250mL flasks containing 100mL of MB solution of different dye concentrations . The experiments of adsorption kinetics were carried out in stirred batch mode. For each experiment, 0.1 L of the MB dye solution at specified concentrations was continuously stirred at 160 rpm with 0.5 g of Tripoli at 25◦C. Samples were withdrawn at appropriate time intervals and then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 min and the absorbance of the supernatant was measured. The concentration of the residual dye was measured using UV/visible spectrometer at a λmax corresponding to the maximum absorption for the dye solution (λmax= 661 nm) . Results: Four kinetic models are the pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion equations, were selected to interpret the adsorption data. The kinetic parameters were calculated from the experimental data and it was shown that they could be fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic and intra-particle diffusion models. The linear Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe equilibrium isotherms The adsorption data obtained were well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 16.6 mg g−1 from the Langmuir isotherm model at 25 ◦C. The Langmuir isotherm constant, KL, was used to evaluate the changes of free energy . The negative value of free energy change indicated the spontaneous nature of sorption and confirmed affinity of natural Jordanian tripoli for the methylene blue basic dye . Conclusion: The present study shows that the natural Jordanian tripoli, an abundant low-cost clay, can be used as sorbent for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions. The amount of dye sorbed was found to vary with initial pH, tripoli dose, methylene blue concentration and contact time. The value of The monolayer saturation capacity of tripoli was comparable to the adsorption capacities of some other adsorbent materials for MB dye .
  Koshy Philip , Sri Nurestri Abd Malek , Wirakarnain Sani , Sim Kae Shin , Saravana Kumar , Hong Sok Lai , Lee Guan Serm and Syarifah N.S.A. Rahman
  Problem statement: About 32 extracts from eight selected medicinal plants, namely Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma zedoria, Curcuma mangga, Curcuma inodora aff. Blatter, Zingiber officinale var. officinale (jahe gajah) and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (jahe emprit) used by Malaysia traditional health care systems were screened for their antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria using agar disc diffusion assay. Approach: The efficacy of the extracts was compared to the commercially prepared antibiotic diffusion discs. Results: No inhibition was observed with the water fractions. Conclusion/Recommendations: None of the plants tested showed inhibition against Escherichia coli. Curcuma mangga showed some remarked inhibition against the bacteria used in this study.
  Koshy Philip , Wuen Yew Teoh , Sekaran Muniandy and Hashim Yaakob
  Culture dependent and culture independent methods have shown that about 600 species of bacteria inhabit the human oral cavity. While some oral microorganisms have a direct link to dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis, opportunistic pathogens may be responsible for systemic diseases such as bacterial endocarditis, aspiration pneumonia, osteomyelitis in children, preterm low birth weight, coronary heart disease and cerebral infarction (or stroke). This study employs bacterial 16S rDNA sequences to rapidly identify the major cultivable aerobic bacteria in the oral cavity of Malaysian subjects. The data obtained shows that the oral cavity of healthy volunteers contains a number of potentially pathogenic organisms including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The need to profile and characterize these microorganisms using rapid detection methods can go a long way in developing future management strategies in clinical setting to enhance oral health in the Malaysian population.
  Koshy Philip , Saravana Kumar Sinniah and Sekaran Muniandy
  The objective of this research was to isolate novel peptides from extracts prepared from native microbial, plant and fermented sources. The antimicrobial properties of these extracts were initially tested using Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The exact species and strains of these test microorganisms were confirmed by identifying its 16S RNA sequence. The most pronounced inhibition zone for ethanolic extracts was obtained with Andrographis paniculata. For peptide/protein extracts only Allium sativum showed promising results. The particular compound responsible for the inhibition in each case is undergoing characterization by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry.
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