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Articles by Khasrad
Total Records ( 9 ) for Khasrad
  Mardiati Zain , Jurnida Rahman , Khasrad and Erpomen
  This experiment was to study the effect of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Sapindus rarak in diet Oil Palm Frond (OPF) based of nutrients digestibility and body weight gain of goats. Experimental desiegn used randomized blok design, with 4 treatments and 4 groups as replications. This experiment used six teen ettawa goats (40±8.5 kg liveweight). The four treatments were (A) native grass+concentrate (B), OPF (previously treated with 6% urea)+concentrate, (C) Diet B+1% Saccharomyces cerevisae and (D) Diet C+4% Sapindus rarak. The animals were adjusted to their treatments over a 2 week preliminary period which was followed by an 8 week experimental period. Feed intake was determined daily and live weight was measured every two week. Digestibility was measured by total faecal collection over 6 consecutive days on last week of experiment period. The results showed that the dry matter digestibility of treatment B (50.74%) were significantly lower than treatments A, C and D respectively (67.37, 62.38 and 65.71%) and supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was able to improve nutrient digestibility and body weight gain of goat, but still low compared to control (A). Addition of 4% Sapindus rarak in treatment D (123 g day–1) was able to provide digestibility and body weight gain similar to the control ration (132 g day–1). It can be concluded that the use of OPD as a substitute for grass in goat diets would give the same results with the grass when added 1% Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 4% Sapindus rarak.
  Dewi Febrina , Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain and Khasrad
  Background and Objective: The utilization of oil palm fronds (OPFs) as feed is limited due to their high lignin content. The biodelignification of OPFs with Phanerochaete chrysosporium plus the elements Ca and Mn can break down lignocellulose and lignin hemicellulose bonds. Supplementation of fermented oil palm fronds (FOPFs) with P, S and Mg results in the highest microbial protein synthesis and VFA concentration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium in goat rations containing fermented oil palm fronds (FOPFs; fermented by Phanerochaete chrysosporium) on nutrient digestibility. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out using a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The following treatments were performed: A = 40% Napier grass (NG)+0% FOPFs+60% concentrate; B = 20% NG+20% FOPFs+60% concentrate; C = 0% NG+40% FOPFs+60% concentrate; D = 20% NG+20% FOPFs +60% concentrate plus P, S and Mg and E = 0% NG+40% FOPFs+60% concentrate plus P, S and Mg. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences between treatments were tested using Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT).The observed parameters were digestibility of the nutrients. Results: Supplementation with phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium in goat rations that contained fermented oil palm fronds by Phanerochaete chrysosporium at concentrations of 40 and 60% resulted in the highest digestibility of the nutrients. Conclusion: Supplementation with P, S and Mg in goat rations containing FOPFs is indispensable for the growth and activity of rumen microbes.
  Khasrad and R.W.S. Ningrat
  Lack of adequate nutrition all year round is one of the major causes of the low productivity of ruminants. An operational policy announced by the Indonesian government to achieve the target to be self sufficient on meat demand 2010 is to develop feed and ration for beef industry based on agricultural and industrial-wastes besides exploiting biodiversity that has not been fully implemented by the farmers. A feeding trial with 12 Pesisir cattle, indigenous cattle of West Sumatera weighed 120-150 kg aged 2-3 yrs old were carried out to investigate the effect of feeding local feed resources on their growth performance and carcass characteristics; dressing percentage, rib eye area, lean and fat percentage. Animals were divided into two equal groups of similar average body weight, assigned to Completely Randomized Design and were individually fed for 90 days. The first group was offered control feed as practiced by farmer and the second group was offered treatment diet based on ammoniated rice straw and chipped cassava. This feeding trial was followed by a slaughter experiment on one animal from each group to study of carcass traits. Cattle receiving a treatment diet performed better (p<0.05) in all parameters measured, than those receiving control diets. There was significant difference (p>0.05) observed between the two groups with regard to Average Total Body Weight Gain (ATG) and Average Daily Body Weight Gain (ADG) 0.20 kg/d to 0.68 kg/d respectively. Dressing percentage was significantly higher in treatment diet (52.59%) than in control diet (50.82%). The rib eye area, lean and fat percentage was significantly higher in treatment diet than in control diet. It was concluded that feeding improved low quality local feed resources could have a positive effects on growth performance and carcass traits of indigenous cattle.
  Mardiati Zain , Jurnida Rahman , Khasrad and Erpomen
  The aim of this experiment was to study the use of palm oil by products [oil palm fronds (OPF), palm oil sludge (POS) and palm kernel cake (PKC)], that supplemented with Sapindus rarak and Sacharomyces cerevisiae on digestibility and fermentation in vitro. Oil Palm Fronds was previously treated with 3% urea. The treatments consist of 50% OPF+30% POS+20% PKC as a control diet (A), B = A+4% Sapindus rarak, C = A+0.5% Sacharomyces cerevisiae and D = A+4% Sapindus rarak+0.5% Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Digestibility of DM, OM, ADF, NDF, cellulose and rumen parameters (NH3 and VFA) of all treatments were significantly different (p<0.05). Product of fermentation and digestibility treatment A were significantly lower than treatments B, C and D. The result indicated that supplementation Sapindus rarak and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were able to improve fermentability and digestibility of palm oil by product.
  Dewi Febrina , Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain and Khasrad
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sulfur, phosphorus and magnesium supplementation of oil palm fronds fermented by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on rumen fluid characteristics and microbial protein synthesis. This research was carried out using a randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The following treatments were performed: A = fermented oil palm fronds (FOPFs); B = FOPFs+0.4% P; C = FOPFs+0.4% P+0.3% S and D = FOPFs+0.4% P+0.3% S+0.1% Mg. The data were subjected to analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and differences between treatments were tested using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The observed parameters were microbial protein synthesis and rumen fluid characteristics. Supplementation of FOPFs with P, S and Mg resulted in the highest microbial protein synthesis and VFA concentration.
  Dewi Febrina , Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain and Khasrad
  The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of calcium and manganese supplementation during oil palm frond fermentation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on in vitro digestibility and rumen fluid characteristics. This research used a Completely Randomized Design comprising two factors as treatments and each treatment was repeated three times. The factors were Ca dose (1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 ppm) and Mn dose (50, 100 and 150 ppm). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance to measure the differences among treatments; Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to determine the significance of differences. The parameters measured were as follows: digestibility of dry matter (%), organic matter (%), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) (%), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) (%), cellulose (%) and hemicellulose (%). The rumen fluid characteristics considered included the following: pH and the concentrations of NH3 (mM) and Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) (mM). The results indicated interactions between Ca and Mn in relation to the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF, cellulose, pH, NH3 and VFA concentration of rumen fluid. The optimal combination of the minerals used were 2.000 ppm of Mn and 150 ppm of Ca; these values yielded the highest values of digestibility of dry matter (41.914%), organic matter (40.990%), NDF (66.429%), ADF (64.396%) and cellulose (68.524%) and the highest concentration of VFA (117.302 mM).
  Khasrad , Sarbaini , Arfa`i and Rusdimansyah
  Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of cattle breed on meat quality. Methodology: The beef used in this study came from four breeds of cattle, Bali, Pesisir, Simmental cross and Brahman cross, aged 2.5-3 years with the same body scores. The muscle sample used was the longissimus dorsi muscle. The breed of cattle (Bali, Pesisir, Simmental cross and Brahman cross) is designed as a treatment factor and meat was sampled from each animal as a group. The parameters measured were pH, tenderness (shear force), cooking loss, water holding capacity, water content, protein and fat contents. The data obtained were processed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well as Duncan’s Multiply Range Test (DMRT). Results: The results showed that cattle breed has an effect on the average pH, tenderness (shear force), cooking loss, water holding capacity, water content, protein and fat contents of the longissimus dorsi muscle. Pesisir cattle has the lowest cooking loss and the highest protein content. Conclusion: The breed of cattle effects meat quality of the longissimus dorsi muscle.
  Dewi Febrina , Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain and Khasrad
  Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting Napier Grass (NG) with Fermented Oil Palm Fronds (FOPFs) plus minerals (P, S and Mg) on consumption and growth performance of goats. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments for this study were: A = 40% NG+0% FOPFs+60% concentrate, B = 20% NG+20% FOPFs+60% concentrate, C = 0% NG+40% FOPFs+60% concentrate, D = 20% NG+20% FOPFs+60% concentrate plus P, S and Mg and E = 0% NG+40% FOPFs+60% concentrate plus P, S and Mg. The data were analysed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to test the differences between treatments. The observed parameters were feed consumption and growth performance of goats. Results: The results of the study show that substituting NG with FOPFs (100%) plus minerals (P, S and Mg) in goat rations (treatment E) showed the highest nutrient consumption and average daily weight gain and the lowest feed conversion. Conclusion: It is concluded that FOPFs can be used as an alternative to NG in goat rations.
  Khasrad , Sarbaini , Arfai and Rusdimansyah
  Background and Objective: The quality of meat depends on several factors, such as the treatment given to cattle before they are slaughtered, the slaughter process and carcass treatment after slaughter. Many attempts have been made to maintain meat quality, including electrical stimulation, aging and freezing. Electrical stimulation is a simple technology but it provides a more significant effect on the economic value of the meat. This study aimed to observe the effect of voltage and duration of electrical stimulation on tenderness, protein content and fat content. Methodology: A randomized block design with a 2x3 factorial arrangement was used. The first factor consisted of the voltage of electrical stimulation, which was A1 = 110 volts and A2 = 220 volts. The second factor consisted of the duration of electrical stimulation, which included 3 time periods, b1 = One min, b2 = Two min and b3 = Three min and the block consisted of the day when the samples were taken. The variables that were measured include pH, tenderness, protein and fat content of the Pesisir cattle beef. Results: This study showed that there is no interaction between the voltage and the duration of electrical stimulation on tenderness, protein content and pH of the Pesisir cattle. Electrical stimulation voltage significantly influenced tenderness and protein content of the Pesisir beef. The duration of electrical stimulation affects the tenderness of the meat, i.e., the longer the stimulation, the higher the tenderness. Average pH of meat obtained in this study was between 5.56-5.63. Conclusion: The voltage of electrical stimulation influenced the tenderness, protein and fat content of Pesisir cattle meats. The duration of electrical stimulation significantly increased tenderness but did not affect pH, protein and fat content.
 
 
 
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