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Articles by Khalil Ahmed
Total Records ( 4 ) for Khalil Ahmed
  Khalil Ahmed , Azhar Hussain , Imran , Mudassier Ali Qazalbash and Wajid Hussain
  Ice cream is a food commonly consumed during summer. It harbors many potent pathogens, its microbial quality especially bacteriological quality has always been crucially important to public health. This study aims to access bacteriological quality of ice cream sold in different areas of Gilgit town. Randomly collected ice cream samples were studied to determine the microbiological load or colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) using the standard aerobic plate count method. All samples showed positive growth of bacteria ranging from 2.2 X 103 to 8-2 X 104 CFU/g. Seven bacterial species were isolated. The highest frequency of isolation was Escherichia coli 20 (100%) and least isolation was Salmonella spp. 3 (15%). For confirmation the colonies were tested biochemically and were identified up to specie level.
  Hussain Ali , Khalil Ahmed , Azhar Hussain and Imran
  The crown gall is a world wide tumor forming disease of the plants and are a major problem for plant nursery industries. This disease is caused by pathogenic species of soil borne bacteria Agrobacterium and cause great economic loss in fruit plants. From July to November in 2008 an extensive survey was conducted in five villages (Chalt, Skindarabad, Gulmit, Askurdas and Nagarkhas) of the Nagar valley of Gilgit-Baltistan randomly by walking in a zigzag pattern and examined the plants for typical curly top symptoms to determine the incidence and severity of crown gall on cherry, apple and apricot plants. A total of 6100 cherry, 6900 apple and 8000 apricot plants were inspected and the mean incidence of crown gall on cherry plants was found to be 5360 (87.87%), apple plants 6069 (87.96%) and in apricot plants 00 (00.00%). In cherry plants, the severity of the disease observed varied from 33.80-40% in mild, 20-34.49% in moderate and 27.85-40% in severe. While in the apple plants it varied from 36.81-42.5% in mild, 29.14-34.49% in moderate and 27-30.31% in severity. There was no infestation of crown gall in apricot plants. A total of 35 samples (15 soil samples; 1 from each orchard of each village and 20 tumor samples; 2 from each orchard of cherry and apple infected plants) from each inspected village were cultured on modified selective medium (3-Ketolactose agar). The growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was identified on the basis of colony characteristics and biochemical tests based on Bergey’s Manual of determinative Bacteriology. A 100% infestation of A. tumefaciens was observed from both the plant and soil samples except for the soil sample cultures from the apricot orchard. All the 30 A. tumefaciens strains isolated from the soil specimens and infected cherry and apple plant tumors were tested against six different antibiotics by disc diffusion method. All the strains were resistant against Lincomycin, Amoxycillin, Ampincillin and Cloxacillin while Cephradine, Tetracycline and Dioxycycline, showed intermediate sensitivity.
  M. Akram , M. Ibrahim Shah , Khan Usmanghan , E. Mohiuddin , Abdul Sami , M. Asif , S.M. Ali Shah , Khalil Ahmed and Ghazala Shaheen
  Ginger has been used for centuries to support many various digestive imbalances including heartburn, indigestion, nausea, diarrhea and motion sickness. Zingiber officinale is commonly prescribed to treat nausea, but it is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and cholesterol-lowering herb. Ginger is considered safe for supplemental use. It has anticoagulant affects also. This drug is prescribed in gout, rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.
  Maureen A. McDonnell , Md. Joynal Abedin , Manuel Melendez , Teodora N. Platikanova , Johanna R. Ecklund , Khalil Ahmed and Ameeta Kelekar
  Previous studies from our laboratory had indicated that cytochrome c-independent processing and activation of caspase-9 by caspase-8 contributed to early amplification of the caspase cascade in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated murine cells. Here we show that murine caspase-9 is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2) on a serine near the site of caspase-8 cleavage. CK2 has been shown to regulate cleavage of the pro-apoptotic Bid protein by phosphorylating serine residues near its caspase-8 cleavage site. Similarly, CK2 modification of Ser348 on caspase-9 appears to render the protease refractory to cleavage by active caspase-8. This phosphorylation did not affect the ability of caspase-9 to autoprocess. Substitution of Ser348 abolished phosphorylation but not cleavage, and a phospho-site mutant promoted apoptosis in TNF-α-treated caspase-9 knock-out mouse embryo fibroblasts. Furthermore, inhibition of CK2 activity and RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the kinase accelerated caspase-9 activation, whereas phosphatase inhibition delayed both caspase-9 activation and death in response to TNF receptor occupation. Taken together, these studies show that TNF receptor cross-linking promotes dephosphorylation of caspase-9, rendering it susceptible to processing by activated caspase-8 protein. Thus, our data suggest that modification of procaspase-9 to protect it from inappropriate cleavage and activation is yet another mechanism by which the oncogenic kinase CK2 promotes survival.
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