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Articles by Khalil
Total Records ( 7 ) for Khalil
  Khalil , Widya Wati , Firman Hidayat and Evitayani
  Background and Objective: The province of West Sumatra is rich in various species of shellfish that live in salt water and fresh water bodies, including the ocean, estuaries, lakes and rivers. This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and nutritive values of shell meals produced from different shellfish species living in various habitats. Materials and Methods: Samples of shellfish were collected from 12 locations in 4 different water body types: Lakes, rivers, estuaries and oceans. Shell parts were separated, dried and weighed. The dried shells were then ground or subjected to open-air burning to produce 3 meal products: Raw coarse meal, raw fine meal and roasted meal. The products were weighed and analyzed for physical properties (bulk density, angle of response and particle size) and content of crude ash, Ca and P. The nutritive values of the meals were evaluated by mixing 3% shell meal with basal diet that was fed to 200 laying quails in a completely randomized design. There were four dietary treatments: Control diet (P0), basal diet+3% roasted meal (P1), 3% raw fine meal (P2) and 3% raw coarse particles (P3). The quail were divided into 20 experimental units of 10 birds each, so that each treatment consisted of 5 replications. Parameters measured include feed intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and egg shell quality. Results: The dried shells represented between 47 and 56% of the total body weight of the shellfish, with lake mussels having the highest percentage of shell parts (p<0.05). Raw coarse ground meal had the highest percentage of meal yield (98.7%), followed by raw fine meal (95.8%) and roasted meal (86.8%) (p<0.01). Raw coarse meals had higher bulk density and lower angle of response due to the higher percentage of large particles (p<0.05). The Ca content of roasted meal was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the raw meals. There was no significant effect of the different shell meal products on feed intake, egg production or FCR. However, quail fed a diet containing raw coarse ground shell (P3) had significantly better egg shell quality (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet (P0), P1 or P2. Conclusion: Shell meal that had coarse particles showed the best physical properties and nutritive values.
  Yuherman , Reswati , Yulianti Fitri Kurnia , Indahwati and Khalil
  Background and Objective: Female exotic breed cattle raised by traditional small farms are susceptible to reproductive disturbances that result in failure or delay to produce calves. The present research investigated the hematologic profiles of exotic breed cattle having reproductive troubles versus heifers and pregnant cows raised by small farms. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted to identify the reproduction performance of 160 female Simmental cows raised at 15 smallholders in Payakumbuh, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Samples of blood were collected from 15 female Simmentals comprised of three different reproductive statues (heifers, pregnant and reproductive failure, n = 5 animals each). Blood plasma was then separated and analyzed for hematological parameters [hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, red and white blood cell, mean corpuscular Hb concentration], total protein and mineral content (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn). Samples of fodder feed were collected from 15 farms for determination of dominant species and mineral composition. Data were statistically analyzed in a completely randomized 3×5 design for blood parameters and 4×3 design for forage minerals. Results: About one-third of female cows found to have reproductive problems. Anestrus was found to be the most important causal factor for reproductive failure, followed by postpartum infertility (poor fertilization). The reproductive failure group had significantly lower (p<0.05) Hb levels, hematocrit, red and white blood cell and protein but higher mean corpuscular Hb concentration. Considering the critical levels in the blood and feed, the animals were deficient in protein, Ca, P, Mn and Cu. Conclusion: Anestrus and repeated insemination were found to be the major causes of reproductive disorders in exotic breed cattle under small farm conditions that results in delay or failure to produce calves. Reproductive disturbances in Simmental cows were most likely associated with nutrient deficiencies.
  Yulianti Fitri Kurnia , Ferawati , Reswati and Khalil
  Twenty-five goat farms were surveyed to gain data and information about population, farming practices, goat performances and market prospect. Data were then analyzed to compare the prospective of dairy goat farm in compare to meat-types as a livestock enterprise suitable for small-scale or part time farmers. Three dairy goat farms were then selected to define milk production, quality and marketing. Samples of fresh milk were taken from each farm and analyzed for microbial pathogens and physical characteristics. Results found from the 25-selected farms, there were 14 farms (56%) raising meat-type goat and 11 dairy goat farms (44%), but the total population of dairy goat of about 395 animals was much higher than that of meat type goat of 200 animals. Each dairy goat farm kept about 35.9 animals, while meat-type goats were only 14.3 animals. Dairy goat farm has better prospect in compare to meat-types as an alternative livestock enterprise suitable for small-scale farmer or part-time livestock producer in Payakumbuh region. The mean values of total plate counts and Coliforms were found in the range of 8.04-8.46 and 0.72-4.25 log CFU/ml, respectively, while Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were not detected. The physical characteristics of fresh goat milk from Payakumbuh met the national standard. The potential market for goat milk and higher price of bucks made the farmer to be able to increase their farm scale and to raise their goats more intensively in order to achieve optimum production performances and incomes.
  Ferawati , Endang Purwati , Arief and Khalil
  Gamma irradiation can be used as one of the most efficient methods to reduce microorganisms in food. The irradiation of food is used for a number of purposes, including microbiological control, insect control and inhibitions of sprouting and delay of senescence of living food. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation technology on their microbial quality (total plate count, coliform and fungal count) and sensory attributes of fresh meat. Twenty fresh meat samples were collected from Pondok labu traditional market in South Jakarta. The fresh meat samples were treated with 0, 1, 2, 3 kGy gamma irradiation dose. Exposure to gamma irradiation in Co60 driven irradiating facility was performed at the Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN) in Jakarta. Irradiation had highly significant effects (p<0.01) on reduction of microbial population. Microbial analysis indicated that gamma irradiation was effective in reducing those microorganisms and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of fresh meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate total bacteria, coliform and fungi count. This study showed that irradiation had no significant effects (p>0.05) on the sensory attributes of fresh meat.
  Khalil
  The present study was aimed to define the suitability of Asystasia gangetica (L.) as a predominant forage for goats based on crude nutrient and mineral composition. Samples of forages collected by farmers were taken from 8 goat farms at three different sampling times. Fresh samples were taken from five different spots in each sample bunch from each farm, weighed and then sorted to determine the predominant species based on botanical composition and apparent frequency. Samples of six predominant species were chopped and mixed in with others from the same sampling time. Representative samples (about 150 g) from each of the predominant species were dried and ground for chemical analysis. Botanical composition, apparent frequency, dry matter, nutrient content (crude protein, fiber and ash) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) were measured. Results showed that of the 47 total kinds of vegetation fed to goats in the Payakumbuh region of Indonesia, the six predominant forage species included Axonopus compressus (23.4%), Centrocema pubescens (6.8%), A. gangetica (5.5%), Panicum maximum (5.3%) and Gliricidia sepium (5.2%) and Manihot utilissima (5.0%) foliage. The crude nutrient and mineral content of A. gangetica showed it to be a good source of protein and minerals, particularly Ca, P, Cu, Mn and Zn. It was concluded that A. gangetica could be used as a good complementary source of protein and minerals for goats.
  Khalil , Reswati , Y.K. Fitri , Indahwati and Yuherman
  Background and Objective: Grazing pasture is presumably able to fulfill fodder requirement for a greater population of breeding cattle, whereas low reproductive rates are most likely caused by mineral deficiency in soil and grazing forages. The present study aimed to evaluate seasonal availability and nutrient composition of pastures in relation to carrying capacity and mineral concentrations of imported breed cattle by considering the mineral profiles of soils, forages and blood plasma samples. Materials and Methods: Samples of forage and soils were collected from 75 sampling points at 15 pasture paddocks during wet and dry seasons. Sample of forages were used for estimation of botanical composition of planted forage species, biomass production and carrying capacity and then analyzed for Dry Matter (DM), crude nutrient, fiber fraction and minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Se and Zn) the same minerals were also analyzed in soil samples. Blood samples were collected from 15 female Simmentals, including heifers and pregnant and non-pregnant cows of each 5 animals. Blood plasma samples were analyzed for Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Se and Zn. Results: Pastures were dominated by the Brachiaria decumbens species of approximately 81-84%, while legumes were scarce (0.1-03%). Biomass production carrying capacity and fiber content of forages were significantly higher in the wet season, while DM and crude protein contents were higher in the dry season. Minerals of forages were not significantly affected by the seasons, some micro minerals Mn, Se, Cu and Zn were deficient in soil, forages and cattle. Conclusion: The stocking rate of the grazing pasture could be increased and that dietary supplementation of micro minerals (Mn, Cu, Se and Zn) is needed.
  Khalil , Reswati , Ferawati , Y.F. Kurnia and F. Agustin
  Background and Objective: Bone meal and bone char produced from inedible cow bones could be an alternative renewable and low-cost dietary Phosphorous (P) source in poultry diets. This study aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics, mineral composition and nutritive value of bone meal and bone char meal produced from inedible cow bones derived from different body parts of the animal. Materials and Methods: A field survey was carried out to collect data on inedible bones taken from 30 slaughtered cows at sites involved in three meat processing steps: Slaughter house, local meat shops and beef offal processors. Samples of inedible bones grouped into three body parts: Head, ribs and legs were collected and processed into bone meal and bone char meal by soaking in lime water and open-air burning, respectively. The nutritive values of the bone meals were also evaluated by mixing 3% bone meal and bone char with a basal diet that was fed to 150 laying quails. Parameters measured included: Inedible bone weight, percentage of meal yield, content of crude ash and minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu), physical properties and particle size distribution, egg production, egg shell quality, digestibility and tibia bone mass and mineralization. Results: Present study showed that on average inedible bones represented 13.8 kg/animal or 3.4% b.wt., that could be used to produce bone meal. Percentage of meal yield for bone meal (91.4%) was significantly higher (p<0.01) than bone char processed by open-air burning (67.3%). However, crude ash, Ca and P content of bone char meal were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that for bone meal. Bone char produced a higher response angle due to a higher percentage of small-sized particles (p<0.05). There was no significant effect of bone origin (i.e., head, rib and leg) on meal yields, mineral composition or particle sizes. Supplementation of diets with bone char yielded better quail egg shell quality, mineral digestibility and bone weight than that for bone meal. Conclusion: Production of bone char meal by open-air burning gave lower meal yield but higher essential mineral concentrations and better nutritive values than that of bone meal.
 
 
 
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