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Articles by Kazuhiro Kawai
Total Records ( 5 ) for Kazuhiro Kawai
  Ken Onda , Chikako Noda , Kazue Nakamura , Reiichiro Sato , Hideharu Ochiai , Sachiko Arai , Hiroo Madarame , Kazuhiro Kawai and Fujiko Sunaga
  Background: This study investigated changes in the blood acid-base balance to determine the effects of Lactated Ringer’s Solution (LRS) administration in a steer with liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration and in a cow with a fatty liver caused by a parturient negative energy balance. Materials and Methods: The LRS was administered to the CCl4 steer before CCl4 administration and 2, 7 and 11 days after CCl4 administration. The fatty liver cow and a group of control cows were administered LRS once. The initiation of LRS infusion was designated time-point 0. Venous blood samples were collected periodically from time-point 0-360 min thereafter and parameters related to the acid-base balance were measured. Results: On day 2, blood pH of the CCl4 steer before LRS administration was 7.26 but it gradually increased after the initiation of LRS administration, before ultimately recovering to within the normal reference range. The HCO3– levels decreased transiently just after the administration of LRS on day 7, then rapidly returned normal. Despite the fatty liver cow having severe fat infiltration, there were no substantial differences in parameters related to the blood acid-base balance between the fatty liver cow and the control cows, after LRS administration. Conclusion: Even in a steer suffering from liver damage caused by CCl4 administration, lactate was metabolised in the liver and worked as an alkaliser. Therefore, LRS may be a safe extracellular replacement solution when administered at the recommended flow rate and dose (20 mL kg–1 h–1 and 30 mL kg–1, respectively) to dairy cows in clinics.
  Hirohisa Akamatsu , Hideyuki Uruma , Takahiro Seto , Mizuki Hurumoto , Kazuki Nakashima , Yasunori Shinozuka and Kazuhiro Kawai
  Background and Objectives: Ketosis in dairy cow after parturition is a disease in dairy farms chiefly caused by lack of energy. It was examined that the preventative effect of oral administration of propylene glycol and feeding bypass amino acids prospectively on ketosis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Sixteen Holstein cows, serum total cholesterol concentrations <87 mg dL–1 (72±10 mg dL–1) at 2 weeks before parturition that were at risk of developing ketosis after parturition, were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Seven cows were not treated (NT group), 5 cows were orally treated with 90% propylene glycol upto parturition at 250 mL/day/head for 10 days (PPG group) and 4 cows were given a combined treatment of propylene glycol in the same way as the PPG group and were also fed bypass amino acids at 400 g/day/head from -7-14 of parturition for 21 days (PPG+BAA group). The results of 3 groups for incidence of ketosis, treatment days, blood examination (serum 3-Methylhistidine, NEFA, TCho, BUN, Alb, AST, GGT) and BCS were compared. Numbers of cows with ketosis were analyzed by chi-square test. Results: The incidence of ketosis in the NT group was higher than in the PPG+BAA group significantly (p<0.05). The serum 3-Methylhistidine concentration in the NT group was higher than in the PPG+BAA group at 2 weeks after parturition (p<0.05). The serum GGT activity in the NT group was higher than the normal range at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of parturition and was significantly higher than those in the other two groups at 2 weeks after parturition (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggested that administration of propylene glycol and feeding bypass amino acids controls the acceleration of body protein degradation and prevents liver dysfunction. This is an effective method for prevention of ketosis in dairy cows.
  Yasunori Shinozuka , Teppei Morita , Aiko Watanabe and Kazuhiro Kawai
  Background and Objective: Although screening of clinical mastitic milk for bacteria is necessary for evidence-based antibiotic treatment and prevention of mastitis, these milk samples are frequently culture negative. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate clots from culture-negative mastitic milk for the presence of viable bacteria in an attempt to unravel the reason for the no-growth (NG) status of mastitic milk. Methodology: A total of 449 clinical mastitic milk samples were enrolled, visual inspections were performed to confirm the presence of clots in milk samples and specimens were subjected to bacterial culturing by conventional methods. Milk samples that were NG by primary culture were re-cultured. Furthermore, clots in NG milk samples were recovered aseptically and cultured. Bacteria isolated from milk or clots were identified using biological methods. Results: In primary culture, NG was detected in 96 out of the 449 samples tested (21.4%). The proportion of mastitic milk with clots was significantly higher in NG milk (45.1%, 78/173) than in growth (G) milk (6.5%, 18/276). In the secondary culture of NG milk and its clots, the culture-positive rate of clots from NG milk (53.8%, 42/78) was significantly higher than that from NG milk (34.4%, 33/96). Although no differences were found in other pathogens, the isolation rate of coliforms from clots (20.8%, 20/78) was more than two times that from milk (8.3%, 8/96). Conclusion: These findings suggested that elimination of mastitic bacteria by the host immune system may be a cause of culture-negative mastitic milk and that this pattern is often observed upon infection with coliforms.
  Kazuhiro Kawai , Kana Kuruhara , Yutaka Matano , Kiyoshi Akiyama , Shinji Hashimura , Sachi Tanaka , Yoshio Kiku , Aiko Watanabe and Yasunori Shinozuka
  Background and Objective: Bovine subclinical mastitis increases somatic cell count (SCC) without showing clinical symptoms, thus resulting in substantial economic losses to dairy farms. Numerous attempts to reduce SCC without using antibiotics have been reported but they have yet to be applied widely. This study investigated whether SCC can be reduced by feeding coffee ground silage containing large amounts of polyphenol, which is an inexpensive antioxidant to cows with subclinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: In cows with subclinical mastitis, the coffee ground silage feeding group was fed by adding 1.5 kg day–1 to normal feed and feed in the control group was not supplemented. Blood and milk were collected every week, the SCC in the quarter milk was measured and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values in the blood and milk and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in milk were measured. In order to investigate the immune kinetics, leukocyte subpopulation analysis was performed for 7 days after feeding. Results: Although the SCC did not show a significant decrease in the non-feeding group (n = 9), in the coffee ground silage feeding group (n = 11), it was decreased significantly (p<0.01) at the 5th week. Furthermore, ORAC values were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the coffee ground silage group (n = 5) than in the non-feeding group (n = 6), the TBARS value was significantly lower (p<0.01). In addition, bulk milk SCC after feeding was also observed in 150 milking cattle in the summer season under heat stress. Furthermore, in the subpopulation of leukocytes after 7 days of feeding, there was a significant increase in CD4+cells and CD14+MHC class II+cells on day 1 after feeding. Conclusion: These results suggest that feeding of coffee ground silage to cows with subclinical mastitis increased the antioxidant activity and immune activity, leading to a decrease SCC in milk.
  Ken Onda , Reiichiro Sato , Nobue Oba , Eriko Hashimoto , Hideharu Ochiai , Sachiko Arai , Kazuhiro Kawai , Kazuyuki Kaneko , Seigo Itoh and Yasunori Wada
  Leptin is secreted mainly from adipocytes, regulates energy metabolism and influences obesity and many other mechanisms. Milk contains higher concentrations of leptin than blood and mammary epithelial cells produce leptin. The present study examines leptin gene expression in the mammary glands of lactating and non-lactating cows using RT-PCR. The amplified PCR products were sequenced. Researchers found that unlike the mouse, the leptin mRNA is not expressed at all in the non-lactating mammary gland and is sometimes not expressed in the lactating mammary gland of cows. Sequencing analysis confirmed two leptin precursors like those of human and mouse. One precursor consisted of 167 amino acids and the other consisted of 166 amino acids with a deletion at glutamine 49. This study suggests that leptin may be associated with proliferation of mammary epithelial cells to prepare subsequent lactation during pregnancy.
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