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Articles by Kayode O. Adebowale
Total Records ( 2 ) for Kayode O. Adebowale
  Kayode O. Adebowale , Foluso O. Agunbiade and Bamidele I. Olu-Owolabi
  The observed trend in the investigation of the fate of trace metals in the water and bottom sediments of the Ondo coastal area revealed how domestic waste disposal, oil exploration and agricultural activities can create potential hazard to the ecosystem. Samples of water and bottom sediments collected and analysed for 12 metals: As, Cd, Cr, Co, Fe, Ni, Mn, Mo, Pb, V, Sn and Zn, showed elevated concentration of these metals in the environment while, the enrichment factors calculated showed Fe as the most enriched metal. There were significant relationship between these metals and organic matter concentration in sediment samples. Site SW01, SW02 and SW06 had the highest enrichment of metals indicating pollution from anthropogenic sources and trans-boundary movement. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that Mn and Fe found to be abundant in both water and sediment were clearly from the geological structure of the area with minimal anthropogenic contributions. The partitioning and the Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the metals favour the accumulation of metals in the sediment phase. The observed relationships of the metals with organic carbon caused the association of the metals concentration with the sediment column but increased salinity and storm action are aiding increasing concentration of bioavailable metals in the water column creating potential hazard for the coast.
  Yemisi A. Adebowale and Kayode O. Adebowale
  The emulsifying properties of the flour and protein isolates from Mucuna Bean (Mucuna sp.) have been investigated. The pH dependent protein solubility profiles indicated that the isoelectric point of the proteins was between 4 and 5 depending on the species. Generally the solubility reduces as the pH increased until it reaches the isoelectric poiunt. This was followed by a progressive increase in the solubility with further increase in pH. The emulsifying capacity of the flours increases as the concentration of the flour samples increased up to 3% concentration of sample. Subsequent increase in the concentration of the samples reduced the emulsifying activity. The emulsion stability of the flour follow a similar trend except that the increase in the stability was up to 6% sample concentration, after which further increase in the level of the flour reduced the emulsifying stability. Similar trend was observed in the protein isolates, except that a much higher values were obtained. The trends of the emulsifying capacity and stability were similar in M. rajada and M. cochinchinensis for both the flours and protein isolates. There was an increase in the emulsifying capacity and stability as the pH was increased from 2-4. However at pH 5, there was a rapid reduction in the emulsifying capacity and stability while in all other samples (whether flour or protein isolate), there was a corresponding rapid reduction at pH value of 4. The result parallels the trend recorded for the protein solubility because the region of minimum solubility of proteins (isoelectric region) was the region of minimum emulsifying capacity and solubility of the samples. It was found that the emulsifying capacity and stability of the flours and protein isolates increased as the ionic strength was increased from 0.0-0.4M of KCl solution. Thereafter the values of the parameters decreased as the ionic strength was increased to 1.0M. Minimal values of the emulsifying capacity and stability were obtained at ionic strength of 1.0M. The Emulsion Activity Index (EAI) as well as the Emulsion Stability Index (ESI) for protein isolate were determined to allow for comparison of emulsifying properties which were determined using the same technique for similar seeds. The highest EAI value (123 m2 g 1) and ESI value (72 h) was obtained for M. pruriens while corresponding values for M. veracruz white was 98 m2/g and 48 h, respectively. Data for Mucuna isolate as reported in this study are higher than those reported for Soy protein isolate with values of 118 m2 g 1 and 52h for EAI and ESI, respectively. As the temperature was increased from 25-60C, the viscosity of the flours and the isolates increased. On cooling again to 25C the viscosity increased further at all pH values. However, minimum viscosity was observed at either pH 4 or 5 (region of isoelectric point) for both the flours and protein isolates. The result of gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE indicated the presence of a major band consisting of a broad zone with molecular weight 367 and 173 kDa appeared in all the samples under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. In addition, some minor polypeptide chains (55, 84, 97 and 116 kDa.) gave similar patterns under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. In contrast, a 66 kDa minor fraction disappeared after reduction which resulted in the formation of a smaller polypeptide chain with 24 kDa.
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