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Articles by Kasing Apun
Total Records ( 3 ) for Kasing Apun
  Lesley Maurice Bilung , Chai Fung Pui , Ahmad Syatir Tahar , Kasing Apun , Lela Su`ut , Yee Ling Chong and Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan
  Background and Objectives: Leptospirosis is a death-causing disease caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria, Leptospira especially in tropical countries. Current study was aimed to detect pathogenic, intermediate and saprophytic Leptospira species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay from an oil palm plantation in Borneo, specifically in Miri, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 samples from rodents (n = 3), water (n = 30) and soil (n = 30) were isolated from an oil palm estate in Northern Sarawak, Borneo. All samples were inoculated into modified semisolid Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) broth with 5-fluorouracil and incubated for a month. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using primer targeting lipL32 (423 bp) for pathogenic, 16S rRNA (331 bp) for intermediate and rrs (240 bp) for saprophytic species. Results: pathogenic Leptospira was found in 33.3% rodents (1/3) Rattus tiomanicus, 23.3% soil samples (7/30) and 16.7% water samples (5/30). Intermediate species were demonstrated in the other 66.7% rodents (2/3), Sundamys muelleri and Rattus exulans and 10% soil samples (3/30). Saprophytic species was found in only 3.3% soil sample (1/30). Results from DNA sequencing analysis indicated that the most dominant pathogenic Leptospira species discovered in the study was Leptospira interrogans, followed by Leptospira noguchii and Leptospira weilii. Conclusion: These preliminary findings provide baseline data on the occurrence of Leptospira species in captured rodents and the environment. These findings could assist in control and prevention of leptospirosis among oil palm estate workers in Sarawak. Awareness and knowledge on leptospirosis should be promoted among oil palm workers for prevention and mitigation.
  Lim Mui Hua and Kasing Apun
  The aim of this study was to isolate Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in tiger shrimps, water and sediment samples of aquaculture farms in Kuching, Sarawak. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was compared. Shrimp culture is a very important economic activity in the world and one of the fastest growing industry in Malaysia. Problems with diseases are very common. The use of antibiotics and chemicals are thus widely used against these bacteria. There are many concern regarding the use of these chemicals in shrimp farms. Its potential impact on the development of antimicrobial resistance in the environment and human health arises. The bacterial isolation was performed using the disk diffusion method. This method involved the use of selective enrichment with alkaline peptone water and plating of the enrichment culture onto Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Sucrose. A total of 140 V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from four different farms were examined for their antimicrobial resistance to 9 commonly used antimicrobials: ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, cephalothin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, chloramphenicol and streptomycin. The most frequently encountered form of resistance were resistance to ampicillin (100%), tetracycline (60%) and nalidixic acid (37.5%). The samples were totally susceptible to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Low levels of resistance of less than 30% were demonstrated in the other antimicrobial agents. The Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) indices were highest for tiger shrimps isolates (0.27) and low for environmental sources, water samples (0.011). The results in this study confirm that all strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol. However, the resistance towards ampicillin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid suggest that the use of antimicrobials in tiger shrimps should be stopped to overcome future resistance problem. This study revealed useful information on the resistance pattern of V. parahaemolyticus towards antimicrobial agents. Constant monitoring of the antibiotic resistance patterns of V. parahaemolyticus in the study areas should be done.
  Chai Fung Pui , Kasing Apun , Jennifer Jalan , Lesley Maurice Bilung , Lela Su`ut and Hashimatul Fatma Hashim
  Background and Objective: Biofilm formation is important for the establishment of bacterial pathogenesis and disease control. Formation of cell aggregates has contributed to the long-term colonization of renal tubules of mammalian maintenance host by pathogenic Leptospira. This study aimed to quantify the biofilm formation among 29 pathogenic strains of Leptospira isolated from rats, soil and water samples in Sarawak, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A starting bacterial suspension inoculum of about 106 bacteria mL–1 was prepared from mid-exponential cultures. Biofilm assay was then conducted in triplicate in 24-well microtitre plates. Crystal violet assay was performed to assess the biofilm forming abilities based on optical density obtained. Based on adherence strength, the biofilm forming abilities were classified into four different categories: Non-adherent, weakly adherent, moderately adherent and strongly adherent. Results: A 32.26% each of tested bacteria was classified either as non-adherent or weakly adherent biofilm producers on 1st day. From 2nd to 5th day, most of them produced moderately and strongly adherent biofilms. All the isolates adhered strongly from 6th to 10th day. Highest biofilm production was noticed either on 7th to 8th day. In this study, the strongest biofilm producers among rats, soil and water samples are P38 with OD600 at 16.700±0.265 on 8th day, P18 with OD600 at 21.760±0.332 on 7th day and P22 with OD600 at 19.793±0.144 on 7th day, respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, all the tested Leptospira were able to produce strong biofilm, which contributed to the survival in diverse environmental habitats and anticipated in disease transmission.
 
 
 
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