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Articles by Kamaruzaman Sijam
Total Records ( 10 ) for Kamaruzaman Sijam
  Reza Khakvar , Kamaruzaman Sijam , Wong Mui Yun , Son Radu and Thong Kwai Lin
  Ralstonia solanacearum, a soil-borne plant pathogen, causes lethal wilting disease of more than 200 plants worldwide. This very wide host range covers both monocots and dicots, extending from annual plants to trees and shrubs. Although generally it’s considered as a plant pathogen, R. solanacearum behaves primarily as a saprophytic bacterium able to survive for long periods of time in various natural habitats such as surface waters and different types of soils. Epidemiological and ecological studies on pathogen distribution in the environment are seriously hindered by the lack of efficient detection method especially when the concentration of the pathogen is either very low or is present in a latent, dormant or non-culturable state. With due attention to importance of R. solanacearum in Malaysia and several irreparable losses that every year caused by this bacterium, this is prompted current study to develop a sensitive PCR-Based method to improve the detection of R. solanacearum in natural sources. We selected the previously reported primers (OLI1;OLI2; Y2; JE2) for their sensitivity and specificity detection of the bacterium in water and soil by a modification of PCR assay.
  Hajivand Shokrollah , Thohirah Lee Abdullah , Kamaruzaman Sijam , Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah and Nur Ashikin Psyquay Abdullah
  Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB) is a phloem limited disease in citrus caused by a fastidious bacterium called ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ found in Africa, Asia and United States of America (USA). HLB can severely reduce vigor and yield or kill all citrus trees within 5 years. There is a need to screen and identify suitable rootstock for propagation of clean plan materials for citrus in the tropics. This study was conducted to detect the presence of HLB on 18 selected citrus species and to categorize the level of infection and susceptibility of citrus species to HLB.
Eighteen citrus species were assessed for susceptibility to HLB by graft transmission from source infection (Citrus reticulata).
HLB was detected in 15 species 6 months after grafting using PCR test.
Conclusion: The species could be categorized in five groups: Severe group (72-58% severity) which includes C. reticulata, C. sinensis, C. reshni cv. cleopatra, moderate group (50- 41% severity) includes Fortunella sp. cv. Kasturi Chinai, C. macrophylla, C. microcarpa, mild group (25-17% severity) which included C. medica, C. aurantifolia, Citrus sp. (natural biotype), C. jambhiri. The tolerant group which did not show any HLB symptoms but tested positive by PCR test includes C. aurantium and C. aurantifolia. The resistant groups which include C. grandis cv. Limau Bali, C. hysterix and Citrus sp. cv. Limau Tembikai showed no symptoms and were tested negative for HLB.
  Masanto Masyahit , Kamaruzaman Sijam , Yahya Awang and Mohd Ghazali Mohd Satar
  Problem statement: The increasing of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) plantations in Malaysia enhances the researches on this crop, particularly focusing on its physico-chemical characteristics, great potential health benefits and nutritional value. However, its scientific report of disease is still lacking, primarily on anthracnose disease. This study was then conducted to investigate the distribution of anthracnose disease on dragon fruit and to correlate its occurrence with weather and cultural data. Approach: Survey and sampling were conducted on dragon fruit-growing areas in Peninsular Malaysia since December 2007 until August 2008 to measure the Disease Incidence (DI) and Disease Severity (DS). The diseased stem and fruit were sampled and brought to laboratory for isolation and identification. DI data were plotted with DS and then correlated using Pearson correlation with weather and cultural data. Results: Of the 43 surveyed-farms in 11 states, DI and DS were successfully recorded on three dragon fruit species from 36 farms (83.72%). The infected stem and fruit had reddish-brown lesions with chlorotic haloes symptoms. The lesion had brown centers and coalesced to rot. Based on its whitish-orange colony, septated hypae and capsule-like conidia and the pathogenicity test, the pathogen was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. One way ANOVA with DMRT test highlighted that the most disease occurrence was found in Malacca (mean of DI and DS, 57.30 and 21.20%), whereas the lowest in Kelantan state (mean of DI and DS, 6.70 and 4.30%). Pearson coefficient correlations were around 0.107-0.261 for relationships between disease occurrence and age of crops and acreage of farm, from-0.049 to-0.237 for disease prevalence with relative humidity and rainfall and around-0.012-0.173 for disease occurrence with monthly temperature, wind velocity and altitude. Conclusion: The occurrence of anthracnose on dragon fruit in Peninsular Malaysia was more influenced by environmental conditions and agricultural practices rather than climatic factors.
  Hajivand Shokrollah , Thohirah Lee Abdullah , Kamaruzaman Sijam and Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah
  Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease is a fastidious phloem-inhabiting bacterium in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Using universal primers, the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of three strains of the bacterium were obtained by PCR. However there is very little information on seed transmission and HLB pathogen movement to find a way for control or reduce the severity of HLB on the field. The study was conducted to detect HLB pathogen in seeds of Citrus, to determine pathogen movement in citrus seedling after infection and to detect the HLB pathogen in citrus roots. Approach: Seeds of Citrus reticulata cv. Limau Madu were collected from infected orchard and were germinated in screenhouse condition. The seeds of Citrus reticlata cv. L. Madu were planted in screenhouse too for HLB pathogen movement and HLB detection in roots. The seedlings were inoculated using infected grafting methods. Results: HLB was not amplified in new seedlings after germination. HLB moved slowly reaching up to 1.5 cm after 2 weeks, 1.5-4.5 cm after eight weeks and detected on 4.5-9 cm after 14 weeks below the grafting area. HLB was also detected up to 9-15 cm after 16 weeks, 15-24 cm after twenty weeks, 24-28.5 cm after 22 weeks and 28.5-30 cm after 24 weeks below the grafting area. Conclusion: Base on conventional PCR test, HLB disease in citrus is not seed borne and it can reach to the roots 26 weeks after inoculation.
  Abdollah Karami , Zainal Abidin Mior Ahmad and Kamaruzaman Sijam
  Problem statement: Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L.) is an important tropical legume in countries like Malaysia due to its potential as a high protein value crop. However, bright-orange pustules observed on the veins of young leaves, stems, pods and sepals depict symptoms of false rust disease on beans. The causal agent of this disease has been found to be Synchytrium psophocarpi. Currently, there is no published literature of this or other related species in Malaysia. Thus, there is a very serious lack of knowledge on the taxonomic characterization and pathogenicity of the local fungus. Therefore, there is an important need for this microorganism to be documented. Approach: This study was reported based from samples obtained from infected winged bean plants found in the fields around the University Putra Malaysia campus in Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. The morphological characteristics were studied using dark field and scanning electron microscope. Meanwhile, pathogenicity test was carried out using two methods which were moist chamber and on Petri dish. Results: The sporangia were spherical to ovoid in shape and approximately 20.69 μm in diameter. The average diameter for spore measured was 2.02 μm and the flagella were 10.75 μm in length. Positive disease development with false rust disease symptoms was observed in both methods of inoculation practiced. It confirmed the pathogenicity of the fungus as the causal pathogen with the appearance of clear disease symptoms. Conclusion: This research finding is the first detailed report for Synchytrium psophocarpi associated with false rust disease of winged bean in Malaysia. It described the morphology, zoospore production and pathogenicity of the causal fungal organism. This information would be very useful for the studies involving this pathogen in future.
  Mohd Zafri Ab Wahab , Kamaruzaman Sijam , Razi Ismail , Marzukhi Hashim , Erneeza Hata and Dzarifah Zulperi
  Sheath Brown Rot (SBR) is one of the most important diseases that affect rice plant. The disease cause rots to the sheaths, panicles and leaves of rice plant. The disease also contaminating rice seeds through grain’s discoloration thus leads in reduction of rice production. In this study, 50 bacteria isolates that fluoresced under UV illumination on King’s B Selective (KBS) medium were obtained. Out of 50 isolates, 25 isolates were positive for both Hypersensitivity Reaction (HR) and pathogenicity tests. They also showed positive results for several biochemical reactions such as oxidase, arginine dihydrolase and trehalose utilization tests. Based on the preliminary tests, all isolates have been identified as Pseudomonas fuscovaginae (P. fuscovaginae). The 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that all the isolates had 97-99% sequence similarities to Pseudomonas fuscovaginae in the GenBank database. This result was also supported by the constructed phylogenetic tree with the Acidivorax avenae outgroup. It was noted that all 25 isolates originated from the same node with the P. fuscovaginae group. The findings on characteristics of P. fuscovaginae in Peninsular Malaysia hopefully can be used in future studies especially on Malaysian P. fuscovaginae biology and their control.
  Monther Mohumad Tahat and Kamaruzaman Sijam
  Ralstonia solanacearum (race 3 biovar 2) is a bacterial wilt causal agent of many plant species. Infects (potatoes Solanum tuberosum, eggplant Solanum melongena, peppers Capsicum annuum, tomatoes Lycopersicon esculentum, geraniums, Geranium carolinianum, ginger Zingiber officinale and a few weed species including bittersweet Celastrus orbiculatus, nightshade Solanum karsense and stinging nettle Urtica dioica. Ralstonia solanacearum can be infectious in the soil for years in the presence of a host. Race 3 biovar 2 is most commonly transmitted by contaminated soil, equipment, water and insect, or by transplantation of infected seeds or seedlings. Management requires use of resistance cultivars, clean and certified seed, good cultural practices, some chemicals fumigation, antagonistic microbes as a biological control like (Mycorrhizal fungi, Streptomyces sp. and Tricoderma sp.) transgenic resistant plant, cropping systems, soil amendments, integrated control, genetically engineered antagonistic and virulent mutants of R. solanacearum.
  Monther Mohumad Tahat , Kamaruzaman Sijam and Radziah Othman
  The life cycle of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is initiated by spore germination. The interaction between Glomus mosseae and Ralstonia solanacearum was achieved by following the bio-compartmental in vitro system. The system was modified to be useful for different microbes with different types of medium. Mycorrhizal fungi spores were germinated using water agar, nutrient agar and soil media, while casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG) media was used for R. solanacearum.all medium. All medium were mixed with different volumes of tomato and corn root exudates. The hyphal length of G. mosseae greatly affected by the exudates particularly, mycorrhizal tomato root exudates (MTRE) and mycorrhizal corn root exudates (MCRE). The growth of R. solanacearum was suppressed due to G. mosseae spores germination which can produce different volatile and non volatiles substances. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of root exudates volatiles on R. solanacearum and the hyphal of G. mosseae growth under laboratory conditions using a new modified technique.
  Farah F. Haron , Kamaruzaman Sijam , Dzolkhifli Omar and Mawardi Rahmani
  Anthracnose is an economically important disease that can cause 10 to 80% yield reduction in the market with its typical symptoms of dark spots, sunken necrotic tissues and concentric rings of acervuli on fruits. One of the important methods to control the disease is by using antifungal agents derived from plant. Preliminary study indicated that the extracts of Allamanda species have the potential to be developed as the target agent. Five Allamanda species were extracted and screened for antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides by using poison agar technique. The three chloroform extracts of A. blanchetti, A. cathartica ‘Alba’ and A. cathartica ‘Jamaican Sunset’ exhibited potent inhibitory effects and suppressed the mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides by up to about 70%. Further study by bioautography-guided fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation and identification of tetracyclic sesquiterpene plumericin as the antifungal agent. The structural determination of the compound was carried out by interpreting the IR, MS, 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR spectral data.
  Monther Mohumad Tahat and Kamaruzaman Sijam
  Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are associated with the roots of over 80% terrestrial plant species. Mycorrhizal fungi are critical and important microbes for plant growth and survival. It is generally accepted that environmental conditions that favor host plant growth tend to maximize mycorrhizal infection and sporulation. Mycorrhizal colonization is known to induce many morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in host plants. Environmental factors and soil conditions influence the occurrence of mycorrhizal associations in ecosystems but it is hard to examine the direct impacts of these factors on mycorrhizal fungi because they rarely occur in nature without a host and members of the glomales cannot be grown axenically. Among the biofertilizers mycorrhizal fungi form the most significant group of soil microorganisms. This review addresses the main abiotic conditions which interacted with mycorrhizal fungi were discussed which included (soil temperature, soil acidity, crop rotation, fertilizer and organic matter, drought stress and soil moisture, pesticides, heavy metals and salt stress).
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