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Articles by Kalaivani Nadarajah
Total Records ( 5 ) for Kalaivani Nadarajah
  Kalaivani Nadarajah and Hasidah Mohd Sidek
  This review analyses the similarities in the MAPK pathways of plants and elucidates the involvement of MAPKs in the regulation of processes within the plant system which includes biotic and abiotic stress regulation.
  Kin Yip Chee , Pui Ling Tan and Kalaivani Nadarajah
  In the last two decades efforts have been made to identify, isolate and characterise disease resistance or defense related genes. One such gene is the oxalate oxidase (OXO; EC gene which is an enzyme that enhances plants disease resistance by catalyzing the conversion of oxalic acid to hydrogen peroxide. Here, we isolated and transformed a putative OXO gene from a barley BAC clone 450N4 through PCR using specifically designed primers based on the barley OXO cDNA sequence from NCBI. The amplified sequence was identical to the barley OXO gene (Y14203) and barley OXO germin protein. The amplified gene has a coding region of 675 bp and has been shown to be involved in abiotic and biotic stress regulation. The OXO sequence was then introduced into a binary vector that was built using the pGA1611 and pCambia1301. This gene was then transformed into Oryza sativa indica cultivar MR81. The resulting construct, pCam-Ubi-MyOXO has a maize ubiquitin promoter and a NOS terminator. This construct was transformed into induced calli from rice immature embryo of a local elite cultivar, MR81, as explant. PCR analysis detected the presence of MyOXO gene with transformation efficiency of 1.7% (5/280). As a defense related gene and the role it plays in biotic stress regulation makes OXO a food candidate for resistance against diseases rice.
  Kalaivani Nadarajah , Noorliyana Rashid and Yang Farina
  This study was conducted to determine the water quality of the Relau River which is situated within the National Forest Reserve at Merapoh, Pahang. The study was conducted at three stations and water sampling was conducted three times i.e., in October, November and December 2011. The parameters analysed were the temperature, turbidity, Total Suspended Solid (TSS), pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), total coliforms and faecal coliforms. In addition to total and faecal coliform, the presence of Leptospira as an additional biological parameter was included due to an increase in the incidence of Leptospira presence in water bodies reported over the recent years. According to the Interim Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (INWQS), the values for all parameters in Relau River, except for the BOD were classified between Class I and Class II. Based on BOD values, the river was categorised as a Class III. The one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with confidence level of 95% shows that all water quality parameters measured exhibited no significant differences between the three sampling stations.
  Hamdia Z. Ali and Kalaivani Nadarajah
  The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the Trichoderma isolates as a biological control agent against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. In vitro tests of antagonistic activity and ability of Trichoderma isolates against R. solani via the dual culture technique showed that isolates 6, 7, 8, 20, 13, 22 and 17 had high antagonistic activities with reduced radial growth of pathogen. The Trichoderma isolates were used in control experiment under greenhouse conditions where inoculation with Trichoderma isolates 2, 4, 7 and 11 were effective in inducing significant increase in pre and post emergence seedlings (4.33, 4.33, 4.33 and 8.33%) and also contributed towards an increase in seed germination (4.67, 4.67, 4.33 and 4.33%). The suppression results of Trichoderma isolates 2, 7 and 9 on R. solani growth showed disease incidence of approximately 33.33% while disease severity results for the same isolates were 20, 15.67 and 20%, respectively. These readings recorded a significant difference (p = 0.05) than those obtained when the soil was artificially inoculated with R. solani only where the observed values for disease incidence and severity were 100 and 77.67%, respectively. The combination treatment between Trichoderma isolates and Bacillus subtilis showed all Trichordema isolates were able to reduce pre and post-emergence of disease in seedlings in control experiment (p = 0.05). In the combination treatment; isolates 2 and 7 had the highest reduction in disease incidence (both 11%) and severity (both 4.33%) after 60 days post transplanting; the concoction appeared to enhance the growth of plants. Trichoderma isolates 2, 7, 8, 9, 11 and 21 in combination with B. subtilis had excellent suppression of pre (8.67, 8.33, 13, 8.67, 8.67 and 8.67%) and post (9, 8.67, 9.33, 14, 9 and 14%) emergence of disease in R. solani inoculated soil. This shows an overall reduction of disease incidence of between 22-33% and severity of 15.33-22% when the Trichoderma isolates were used in combination with B. subtilis to suppress R. solani infestations.
  Kalaivani Nadarajah , Mahanem Mat Noor , Ainon Hamzah and Arina Anis Azlan
  The employers’ perception on the quality was derived from evaluation of the knowledge, skills and generics skills that the graduating class of 2011 possessed after undergoing a 120 credit hours of education and training in the seven different programmes offered at the School of Biosciences and Biotechnology. The evaluation was conducted while the students were undergoing their industrial attachment at various organisations which is a mandatory requirement for graduation. The pool of employers demographic in this study was clustered into 13 groups with the largest number of respondents from Research Institutes/Facilities (38.4%) followed by hospitals (26.7%). The study found that the language proficiency of the students in written and oral Malay and written English language was good with an overall average score of 4.00 on a scale of 5. The survey identified the students’ strengths in generic skills in commitment to work, work ethics and time management and punctuality (Likert scores ranging from 4.2-4.6). They received excellent ratings with regards to their interpersonal (team-work, respect of others views, racial tolerance and conflict resolution) and their mastery of IT skills (database analysis, internet search and computer proficiency) with an average score ranging from 4.3 and 4.6, respectively in the descriptive factors analysed. As for the quantitative and research skills of the students; the overall analysis showed that the employers were satisfied with the students ability and exposure in both areas (average score range of 3.6-4.1 for the descriptive factors). The results showed that the weakest link for these students was in the area of quantitative analysis which involved critical thinking (3.6), problem solving (3.7) and statistical analysis (3.6). They however, scored higher (scores ranging from 3.9-4.1) with regards to their ability to plan and conduct research.
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