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Articles by K.U. Amaefule
Total Records ( 7 ) for K.U. Amaefule
  M.O. Ironkwe and K.U. Amaefule
  This study was conducted with sixty hybrid (Chinchilla and New Zealand white) weaner rabbit of 5 weeks old to determine their response to graded levels of raw Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc) Offal (BGO) diets. The groups were randomly assigned to five diets in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment. Treatment groups were designated as treatments 1-5. There were twelve rabbits per treatment and each treatment was replicated three times with four rabbits per replicate. The inclusion level of Bambara Groundnut Offal (BGO) in the diet was 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, respectively. And the experiment lasted for eight weeks, parameters measured were final live weight, weight gain, feed and protein intake, feed conversion ratio, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), feed cost and carcass quality. The result of the experiment showed that there were significant (p<0.05) differences in daily feed intake, protein intake, protein efficiency ratio, dressed percentage and intestinal weight. Rabbits fed 15% BGO diet had numerically higher daily weight gain (25.10 g), final live weight (2.18 kg), better Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of 3.26, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) of 3.43 and lowest cost per kg live weight gain (N100) than rabbits fed other graded levels. Increase in the inclusion level of BGO in the diets resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) increase in the total feed cost. It was concluded that weaner rabbits could be fed 15% BGO diets to enhance daily weight gain and final live weight.
  U.H. Ukpabi , K.U. Amaefule and O.M. Amaefule
  One hundred and twenty 3-week old Anak broilers were used to evaluate the performance, feed cost and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients of raw Bambarra Groundnut Offal (BGO) diets supplemented with lysine and or methionine. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with each treatment replicated three times. Five treatment diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The inclusion level of the bambarra groundnut offal in diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 was 20%. Diet 1 (control) had no BGO, lysine or methionine supplementation while diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 were supplemented with lysine, methionine, lysine + methionine and no supplementation, respectively. Parameters measured were final live weight, daily weight gain, feed intake, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), feed cost and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients. Results showed that broilers fed diet 4 supplemented with lysine+methionine had improved FCR (2.05) and PER (2.37) than broilers fed other diets and was consistently similar to the control diet in all parameters measured. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences among the broilers fed the various diets in feed cost indices measured, except cost per kg feed. Broilers fed diet 4 supplemented with lysine and methionine had the highest apparent digestibility coefficient of protein (59.39%) while broilers fed diet 5 without amino acid supplementation had the lowest (52.78%). The conclusion was that raw bambarra groundnut offal should be supplemented with lysine and methionine to improve broiler FCR, PER, digestibility coefficient of CP and reduce feed cost.
  K.U. Amaefule , U.A. Ukpanah and A.E. Ibok
  Performance of starter broilers fed raw Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] Seed Meal (PSM) diets supplemented with lysine and or methionine was determined with 270 unsexed broilers. The experimental design was 2 x 4 factorial in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with each dietary treatment replicated three times and 10 broilers per replicate. The factors were inclusion level of raw PSM (30 and 40%) and amino acid supplementation (no supplementation, lysine, methionine and lysine + methionine). There was a conventional maize-soybean diet as positive control while raw PSM without supplementation was the negative control. Lysine and methionine supplementation were 0.10 and 0.25%, respectively. Performance criteria measured were weight gain, feed intake, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and live weight at 4th week. Results showed that broilers fed methionine or lysine + methionine supplemented diets had significantly (p<0.05) higher live weight, live weight gain, feed intake and significantly (p<0.05) lower protein intake than broilers fed diet supplemented with lysine. Amino acid supplementation significantly (p<0.05) affected only live weight and daily weight gain of broilers. The diet of 40% raw PSM significantly (p<0.05) increased cost per kg feed and daily feed cost more than 30% PSM diet. It was concluded that starter broilers could be fed up to 40% raw Pigeon Pea Seed Meal (PSM) diet without adverse effect on performance of starter birds. However, the diet of 30% PSM should be supplemented with methionine and that of 40% with lysine + methionine.
  K.U. Amaefule , S.N. Ibe , S.F. Abasiekong and O.C. Onwudike
  The response of weaner pigs to diets of different proportions and high levels of palm kernel meal (PKM) and brewers dried grain (BDG) in the humid tropics was determined with 24 hybrid (Landrace x Duroc) pigs whose initial live weights ranged from 8.08 to 8.21 kg (average 8.18 kg). The different proportions of PKM + BDG in the diets were 30 + 40% (T2), 35 + 35% (T3), and 40 + 30% (T4), respectively. PKM + BDG was 0% in T1 (control) and replaced maize in diets T2, T3 and T4. Growth performance and cost-benefit were evaluated at the weaner stage, while carcass and organ characteristics were added at the end of grower stage. Parameters measured were live weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed cost, feed cost of weight gain, gross margin, carcass and organ characteristics. Diets of different proportions of PKM and BDG significantly (P< 0.05) increased FCR and protein intake, significantly (P< 0.05) reduced cost of production and increased gross margin at the wea ner stage. At the grower stage, PKM+BDG diets significantly (P< 0.05) lowered final live weight, weight gain, PER and significantly (P< 0.05) increased FCR, feed and protein intake. The diets also significantly (P< 0.05) reduced total feed cost compared to the control diet and affected some carcass and organ characteristics without regular pattern. It was concluded that weaner and grower pigs could be fed diets containing 70% PKM + BDG (at various proportional combinations), replacing maize completely in the diets.
  K.U. Amaefule , O.C. Onwudike , S.N. Ibe and S.F. Abasiekong
  Nutrient utilization and digestibility of growing pigs fed diets of different proportions of Palm Kernel Meal (PKM) and Brewers Dried Grain (BDG) in the humid tropics were determined with twelve intact male hybrid (Landrace x Duroc) pigs aged 15 weeks. Their live weights ranged 16.78-19.50 kg (average 18.36 kg). The experimental design was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The diets were control, 30% PKM+40% BDG, 35% PKM+35% BDG and 40% PKM+30% BDG for diets I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each diet had three replicates and a male pig per replicate. Locally constructed metabolism cages (107x60x50 cm) were used for the experiment. Measurements were nutrient intake, faecal nutrient output, digestibility coefficient of nutrients, energy utilization, Nitrogen (N) balance and protein utilization. Results showed that growing pigs fed diets of different proportions of PKM and BDG did not significantly (P<0.05) differ in digestibility coefficient of CP, protein utilization and N balance while 40% PKM+30% BDG diet significantly (P<0.05) increased N intake of growing pigs. The energy utilization indices of pigs fed diets of 35% PKM+35% BDG and 40% PKM+30% BDG were consistently superior to that of pigs fed control diet except ME as percentage of Gross Energy (GE). In conclusion, growing pigs could be fed diets different proportions of PKM and BDG without adverse effect on nutrient utilization and digestibility; however N intake would increase with 40% PKM+30% BDG diet.
  K.U. Amaefule , S.F. Abasiekong , S.N. Ibe and O.C. Onwudike
  Digestibility and nutrient utilization of some agro-industrial by-products fed to growing pigs in the humid tropics were determined with twelve castrated male hybrid (Large White x Landrace) pigs whose weights ranged from 15.33 to 17.67 kg (average 16.17 kg) and aged 13 weeks. The experimental design was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each of the four treatments had three replicates and a castrated male per replicate. Locally constructed metabolism cages (107 cm x 60 cm x 50 cm) were used in the experiment. Parameters measured were nutrient intake, digestibility coefficients of DM, CP, CF, Ether Extract and Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE). Others were energy utilization, nitrogen (N) balance and protein utilization. Wheat offal fed to growing pigs significantly (P<0.05) increased DM (418 g) and organic matter (391 g) intakes but significantly depressed apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract (67.50%) and nitrogen intake (16.00 g). Other nutrient and energy utilization indices were not significantly (P>0.05) affected. The conclusion was that Palm Kernel Meal (PKM), Brewers Dried Grain (BDG), wheat offal or equal proportions of PKM+BDG fed to growing pigs have similar apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients, energy utilization, nitrogen balance and protein utilization. However, wheat offal could decrease digestibility coefficient of Ether Extract (EE) and also nitrogen intake.
  K.U. Amaefule , U.E. Mbonu and V. Amaka
  Performance and nutrient utilization of growing rabbits (N = 30) fed graded levels of raw Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc] offal (BGO) diets were determined in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were five treatments each replicated three times with two rabbits per replicate. The inclusion levels of BGO in the diets were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Measurements were live weight, weight gain, feed and nutrient intakes, feed conversion ratio, feed cost and carcass quality. Also measured were nutrients voided, nutrient retention and apparent digestibility coefficient of nutrients. Results showed that 15% BGO diet improved daily weight gain (19.16 g), final live weight (1.18 kg), feed conversion ratio (2.56) and lowered cost per kg live weight gain (Naira 76.55) of rabbits than other diets. Increased level of BGO in the diets resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in total feed cost. Rabbits fed 20% BGO diet had higher CP (18.92 g) and CF (11.31 g) intakes, significantly (p<0.05) higher faecal DM (98.58 g), OM (88.97 g) and faecal nitrogen (0.04 g) than rabbits fed other diets. The diet of 20% BGO also depressed coefficient of apparent digestibility of ether extract (85.28%), CF (65.80%), crude ash and NFE (89.54%) compared to other diets. It was concluded that growing rabbits could be fed diets containing up to 15% BGO to enhance daily weight gain and reduce feed cost, which would not adversely affect nutrient intake, coefficient of apparent digestibility and nutrient utilization.
 
 
 
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