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Articles by K.S. Chukwuka
Total Records ( 11 ) for K.S. Chukwuka
  K.S. Chukwuka and O.E. Omotayo
  The study was conducted to investigate the application effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray) green manure and water hyacinth [(Eichhornia crassipes) Mart) Solms] compost on nutrient depleted soil from under an alley cropping system. The study was carried out at the Botany and Microbiology Department, University of Ibadan. Three different soil amendment treatments including control were used in the study. These were applied in sole applications as well as in varying combinations of the different treatments. The organic amendment treatments were compared to natural fallow as unfertilized control in a modified screen house experiment replicated 3 times in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The results showed that the application of 250 t ha-1 of fresh organic amendments increased the soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, nitrate and nitrite compounds, pH and organic C of treated soils (both top and sub soil samples). Varying application rates of 187.5 and 62.5 t ha-1 also showed increased nutrient status for all aforementioned nutrient elements relative to the control treatment. Combination of Tithonia green manure and water hyacinth compost in the ratio (0.25:0.75 kg) was the most effective in increasing soil nutrient status of all treatments applied. The significance of increase in soil nutrient status of amended soils indicates that local farmers can gainfully substitute use of more expensive chemical fertilizers with these more readily available organic amendment resources.
  K.S. Chukwuka , A.I. Ogunsumi , M.C. Obiakara , O.M. Ojo and U.N. Uka
  The effects of decaying leaf litter of T. diversifolia, V. amygdalina as organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) and their combination effects on the growth and development of maize were studied in a Screen House. Twenty four experimental bags filled with 20 kg of loamy soil were laid out in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications for each treatment which include: 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia as mulch (T1), 250 g of decaying leaves of V. amygdalina (T2), 1.52 g of NPK (inorganic) fertilizer (T3), a mixture of 250 g decaying leaves of T. diversifolia and 1.52 g of NPK (15-15-15) fertilizer (T4), a mixture of V. amygdalina and 1.52 g NPK (15-15-15) fertilizer (T5) and control (T6). Significant growth as well as maize yields were obtained from T3 treated maize groups and this was closely followed by T4 seedlings. The study showed that the decaying leaf litter as organic fertilizer in maize production in a Screen House condition did not give better yield than NPK treatment alone.
  K.S. Chukwuka , U.N. Uka and O.E. Omotayo
  In order to proffer an effective management of weeds in agroecosystems, a study which revolves around recognizing the crop-weed inter-relationship is needed. In the light of the above, the interaction of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray) in an agroecosystem located in the University of Ibadan was studied. Abelmoschus esculentus and Tithonia diversifolia were planted in plastic pots in a randomized block design and watered at alternative days with 2 L of water per pot. Results showed that Abelmoschus esculentus planted alone had the greatest plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, number of leaves and biomass accumulation than Tithonia diversifolia grown alone. However, analysis of variance carried out with each of the plants revealed that Tithonia diversifolia had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the dry weight of shoot and root of Abelmoschus esculentus and also on its number of leaves. Abelmoschus esculentus had no significant effect on the leaf area. The inferences of these results were discussed.
  K.S. Chukwuka , S. Ajala , P.C. Nwosu and O.E. Omotayo
  The balanced use of inorganic amendments to enhance effective crop production for developing world economies like Nigeria is paramount to achieve her Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for its teeming population. Thus this study was carried out to assess the relative growth performances of a major food crop under different regimes of fertilizer application. Field and Green House experiments were carried out to assess the relative growth performances of two Cycles of Zea mays L. (LNTP-W C0 and C3) used as test crops for the amendment of degraded soil using N, P and K single fertilizers. The single fertilizers (treatments) used were Urea, Single Super Phosphate (SSP) and Muriate of Potash and the study was carried out in the Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The experiment consisted of 4 treatments applied at 2 levels (C0 and C3) and replicated three times in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) to give a total of 48 experimental units. The application of Nitrogen (N) was done at four levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha–1), while the Phosphorous (P2O5) and Potassium (K) were applied at a constant rate of about 60 kg ha–1 for all the pots except for the experimental control pots. The design was adopted for both Green House and Field experiments. The results from the study showed that C3 performed better than C0 in Field and Green House experiments with respect to their relative performances of the growth parameters; plant height (cm), stem diameter (mm), number of leaves, leaf length (cm) and leaf width (cm) measured within the Pre-flowering period of 8 weeks. The treatment combination of 90 kg ha–1 N, 60 kg ha–1 P and 60 kg ha–1 K gave the best performance in this study. The study also revealed that the growth rate of the maize plant was directly proportional to the level of N applied with constant levels of P and K providing the basis for developing optimum NPK fertilizer level for the amendment of degraded soil for higher productivity using maize with tolerance to low soil Nitrogen. The study showed that more derelict soils can be put to good use with the appropriate level of NPK Fertilizer application optimum for the right crop, thus aiding the use of hitherto abandoned degraded land and putting more land under cultivation.
  K.S. Chukwuka , S. Ogunyemi and I. Fawole
  Ecological distribution of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl). A. Gray was studied in six states of the southwestern Nigeria using three locations in each of the States. The presence of T. diversifolia was recorded in all the States and locations surveyed in varying numbers with associated weeds. Survey data were analysed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). The first two ordination axes of the DCA accounted for 67.2% (Axis 1, 40.6%; Axis 2, 26.6%) of variance on the site and species components. The DCA separated Ogun State locations from others. T. diversifolia was found to be closely associated with Boerhavia coccinea, Fleurya ovaliflora, Indigofera subulata, Merremia dissecta, Mimosa pudica, Momordica foetida, Phyllanthus mimosoides, other species of Phyllanthus, Physalis angulata, Schrankia leptocarpa and Sesbania parchycarpa in Ekiti, Lagos, Ondo, Osun and Oyo States while these species were absent in Ogun State.
  K.S. Chukwuka , S. Ogunyemi , J.S.A. Osho , G.I. Atiri and J.I. Moughalu
  The effects of water, light and chemical fertilizer (NPK) on the growth and development of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray were investigated under nursery and field conditions. The number of leaves produced and biomass accumulation by T. diversifolia increased with the age of the plant from 55.0±6.4 at 6 weeks after planting (WAP) to 1352.0±39.8 leaves (14 WAP) and 4.5±0.2 g/plants (6 WAP) to 1259.4±19.1 g/plants (14 WAP), respectively. This trend was maintained under both optimum and stressed conditions of water, light and chemical fertilizer. Light was the next most important factor after water with respect to biomass accumulation of T. diversifolia. With minimum light intensity (500 lux), the biomass accumulation was 85.87plusmn;3.7 g/plants whereas without fertilizer application the biomass accumulation was 301.4±4.4 g/plant.
  K.S. Chukwuka and U.N. Uka
  The effects of water hyacinth infestation on the distribution, abundance and species composition of zooplankton in Awba reservoir were investigated. Samples were collected in each of the sampling areas (water hyacinth infested and open water) by vertical zooplankton hauls using 64 um bolting silk net. The samples were immediately fixed in 4% formalin for preservation. The species composition of the zooplankton from the sampled areas consisted of 3 taxa, comprising of 6 species of Cladocera (Moina sp., Ceriodaphnia sp., Pleuroxus sp., Diaphanosoma sp., Chydorus sp. and Leydigia sp.) 6 species of Rotifers (Asplanchna sp., Trichocerca, Filinia sp., Polyarthra sp., Brachionus sp. and Lecane sp.) and 3 species of Copepoda (Cycloid copepods, Copepodite nauphii and Calanoid copepods. However, the study showed that the Rotifers had higher numerical abundance in the study areas. Water hyacinth infested area had a total density of 95 individuals/L while open water had 215 individuals/L. The study showed that the density of zooplanktons were significantly lower (p< 0.05) in the infested area. Biotic indices such as Margalef`s and Simpson`s indices were lower in the infested area while Shannon-wiener diversity index was significantly lower (p< 0.05) in the water hyacinth infested area. The result suggests that water hyacinth dense mats affected the numerical abundance of the zooplanktons.
  U.N. Uka and K.S. Chukwuka
  Aquatic macrophytes are basically seen as those plants that complete their life cycle in water and cause harm to the aquatic environment. The attention of fishery managers is always towards the eradication of aquatic macrophytes. This study is therefore timely as it reflects on the economic importance of aquatic macrophytes in aquatic ecosystem and therefore recommends a study on the utility value of aquatic macrophytes of ecological importance. The monitoring of colonized rivers and large water bodies by aquatic plant is necessary for proper management and development of colonization model is hereby advocated.
  U.N. Uka , K.S. Chukwuka and F. Daddy
  The study offers management guidelines for control and management of water hyacinth in Nigeria. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassippes) which before 1984 was alien to Nigerian water systems has now spread to over 20 of the 36 states including the Federal Capital Territory. The weed not only disrupts the ecology of the systems but also adversely affects the sociological, cultural and economic realities of the indigenous communities especially the artisanal fisher folks within the area. This study reviews the concerted efforts of Nigerian government in water hyacinth control. It also outlines the machineries set up by the government for control and management of water hyacinth. The bilateral co-operation on water hyacinth control between Nigeria and her neighbouring countries are highlighted.
  U.N. Uka , K.S. Chukwuka and C. Afoke
  Leachates from waste dumpsites in Abakaliki metropolis, South eastern Nigeria has become a major source of heavy metal pollution to the soil. Cultivation of Telfaria occidentalis is practiced in these waste dumpsites due to its high organic matter in order to increase yields. Telfaria occidentalis grown on two selected waste dumpsites in the metropolis was collected. Heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and As) in their plant parts as well as in the soil were determined using digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric methods. Heavy metal values in leaf were highest for Pb followed by shoot. Pb ranged from 0.35-0.54 mg kg-1, Copper ranged from 0.02-0.07 mg kg-1 and Zn ranged from 0.04-0.06. Transfer factors were high suggesting that consumption of vegetables grown on the waste dumpsites is dangerous to human health. The Translocation Factor (TLF) for As, Pb and Cu was higher than 1.0 but lower than 1.0. The enrichment coefficient of Pb and As was higher than 1.0. In view of plants role in food chain, cultivation of Telferia occidentalis in waste dumpsites should be eschewed.
  P.E. Ndimele , C.A. Kumolu-Johnson , K.S. Chukwuka , C.C. Ndimele , O.A. Ayorinde and O.R. Adaramoye
  This study was carried out to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) to absorb and translocate iron (Fe) and copper (Cu). The study was conducted with three concentration gradients of Fe and Cu at 10, 15, 20 mg L-1 and control (no metal). The whole set-up was carried out in triplicate and the experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The results showed that iron (Fe) had the highest accumulation value in the root (11.22±6.69 mg kg-1), while copper (Cu) had the highest value in the leaf (3.80±0.12 mg kg-1) both occurred at treatment spiked at 20 mg metal/L of water. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05) in metal accumulation among treatments. The Translocation Factor (TF) values for Fe ranged from 0.49±0.57 to 0.68±0.27 in leaf and 0.64±0.17 to 0.77±0.18 in the stem while the TF values for Cu ranged from 0.78±0.08 to 1.12±0.12 in leaf and 0.72±0.32 to 1.09±0.19 in the stem. This reveals that Cu had better translocation capability than Fe. Highest values of Bioconcentration factor (BCF) for Fe and Cu were 2.32±0.65 at 20 mg L-1 and 0.72±0.01 at 15 mg L-1 obtained in the root and leaf respectively, indicating that the accumulation potential of Fe by water hyacinth is higher than Cu. So, according to the accumulation capabilities of the investigated plant (Eichhornia crassipes), this study showed that the plant was found to be a promising candidate for phytoremediation and adequate for bio-monitoring programmes for contaminated water.
 
 
 
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