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Articles by K.N. Madhusudhan
Total Records ( 7 ) for K.N. Madhusudhan
  G. Lokesh , Putkho Paul Pao , K.N. Madhusudhan , P.K. Kar , A.K. Srivastava , M.K. Sinha , R. Manohar Reddy , P.M. Muniswamy Reddy and B.C. Prasad
  The wild silkworm, tropical tasar Antheraea mylitta Drury being mainly culturing in central and eastern parts of India and produces famous tasar silk. This insect species expresses divergent phenotypic characters in response to varying ecological and climatic conditions thus exists as ecoraces. Hence, in the present study, three ecoraces viz., Daba, Sukinda (Semi-domesticated) and Sarihan (wild) have been selected for the assessment of the variability in silk gland related traits. The parameters of the silk glands studied like comparative length, weight and silk gland to larval body mass index. Besides, some biochemical contents of the silk gland tissue were also studied in three ecoraces. The results showed significant variations at p<5% in all the parameters among the three ecoraces studied, also showed the sexual dimorphism in expression of silk gland features and economic traits. The semi-domesticated Daba ecorace showed higher performance in most of the parameters with comparatively greater in silk gland weight (22%) and in body mass index (>16%). Apart from this, wild ecorace Sarihan cocoons showed higher shell ratio (>10% over the value of other ecoraces). The study infers that, there is wide variability in the expression of phenotype with respect to silk gland related traits among the different ecoraces of tropical tasar silkworm A. mylitta. Since the silk glands are site of biosynthesis of silk proteins, these may be considered for the assessment of diversity or characterization of different ecoraces of tropical tasar silkworm.
  K.N. Madhusudhan , M.S. Nalini , H.S. Prakash and H.S. Shetty
  Tomato and bell pepper seeds were treated with salicylic acid (50 mM), neem oil (5%) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (slurry). The seedlings were sprayed with salicylic acid (50 mM) and neem oil (5%). The concentration of Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) and Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) was assessed based on the number of local lesions on Nicotiana glutinosa. The results showed that the seed/seedling treatment with inducers reduced the number of local lesions when compared to untreated ones. Salicylic acid was an effective inducer.
  G. Vinayarani , K.N. Madhusudhan , S.A. Deepak , S.R. Niranjana and H.S. Prakash
  The aim of the present study was to detect the mixed infection of the tobamoviruses (TMV and ToMV) simultaneously. The primers were designed for the movement protein regions of TMV and ToMV and synthesised. The primers were used to detect the TMV and ToMV in infected leaves. To confirm the results of molecular detection, Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Indirect ELISA) was used to detect the viruses. Based on the results of the present study, the movement protein gene may be used as candidate gene for the identification of plant viruses in plant pathology laboratories. Mixed infection of both viruses to same host can be detected by using duplex RT-PCR method. The assay could be performed in a single tube for simultaneous detection of TMV and ToMV.
  K.N. Madhusudhan , G. Vinayarani , S.A. Deepak , S.R. Niranjana , H.S. Prakash , G.P. Singh , A.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of inducers viz., plant extracts, plant seed oils and salicylic acid on tobamoviruses in both indicator and host plant. Tobamoviruses are major hurdles in the production of tomato and bell pepper. Currently, different inducers derived from various origins are being used to reduce the virus concentration. Preliminary screening of the inducers against tobamoviruses was conducted by using the local lesion assay (Nicotiana glutinosa). The results showed that all the inducers used for screening were effective in reducing the number of local lesions formed by the challenge inoculation of tobamoviruses. Both spray and seed treatment of inducers against the tobamoviruses reduced the concentration of viruses in the seedlings as evident from the results of Indirect Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Among the inducers used for the induction of resistance against tobamoviruses, Bougainvillea spectabilis extract was found to be most effective. The inducer-treated seeds also showed enhancement of seed germination and seedling vigor.
  K.P. Kiran Kumar , A.K. Sinha , S.K. Gupta , K.N. Madhusudhan and B.C. Prasad
  Pebrine disease in tasar silkworm is considered to be most serious because of its chronic pathogenicity. Prophylactic method of mother moth examination proves to be the foolproof technique for pebrine identification. So, the study was conducted to investigate pebrine spores detection competency and evaluation of their quality in exhisting mother moth examinations. Four existing mother moth examination methods namely Prick and See, Conventional, Fuziwara and Delayed Mother Moth Examination (DMME) by Fuziwara were selected for the study. The maximum pebrine and hatching percentages were noticed in 4 days DMME with 23.2 and 93.1%, respectively. While, minimum values were observed in prick and see with 4.3% and 84.3, respectively. No significant variations in Cocoon weight, Shell weight and S.R% was observed in cocoons obtained from the different mother moth testing methods. Least percentage of effective rate of rearing (ERR) was observed in Prick and See method (58.75%) followed by Conventional method (61.25%) and Fuziwara (63.15%). High percentage of ERR was observed in DMME which ranged from 64.53% (1st day after egg laying) to 67.28% (4th day after egg laying). Least percentage of improvement of ERR% over Prick and See was observed in Conventional (2.50%) followed by Fuziwara (4.40%). High percentage of ERR over Prick and See was observed in DMME which ranged from 5.78% (1st day) to 8.53% (4th day). Consequently, among the tested mother moth examinations, DMME by Fuziwara after delaying four days from the egg laying has given best results. This method can be implemented in the research institutions for the maintenance of germplasm and breeders stock.
  K.P. Kiran Kumar , G.P. Singh , A.K. Sinha , K.N. Madhusudhan and B.C. Prasad
  Among the diseases of tasar silkworm, virosis caused by Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus (CPV) is highly contagious and more prevalent. Thirteen antiviral plants were used to test their efficacy against Antherae mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV) in tasar silkworm. The aqueous extracts of these plants in different concentrations were used for containment of virosis in virus-infected silkworm and mortality was recorded. The influence of best three phytoextracts which have shown good results in suppressing virosis were subjected for the study of cellular and biochemical changes. Two percent aqueous extracts of Aloe barbedensis (AKP 3), P. corylifolia (AKP13) and Bougainvillea spectabilis (AKP 9) were found more effective in suppressing the virosis and reduced the mortality due to virus infection of 66.17, 64.47 and 57.19%, respectively. The total hemocyte count increased up to 6th day of post inoculation in phytoextract treated batches while in the inoculated control the increase was within 3 days indicating the positive hemocyte mediated response in silkworm treated with phytoextract. The hemolymph protein in Aloe barbedensis treated silkworm (35.27 mg mL-1) was significantly higher than inoculated control (20.25 mg mL-1). The gradual increase of total hemolymph proteins from 1st day (16.31 mg mL-1) to 8th day (33.73 mg mL-1) was observed in healthy control where as in inoculated control increasing trend was observed from day 1 (16.26 mg mL-1) to day 3 (24.22 mg mL-1) there after decreasing trend was observed and finally reached to 20.25 mg mL-1 (8th day). The plant extract of Aloe barbedensis (AKP 3) is more effective in suppressing virosis based on the results of mortality reduction against virosis cellular and biochemical changes.
  K.P. Kiran Kumar , A.K. Sinha , G.P. Singh and K.N. Madhusudhan
  Penicillium citrinum causes white muscardine in tasar silkworm and significantly damage cocoon production at farmer’s field. Four systemic fungicides Bavistin, a carbandazim fungicide (AK 1), Bayleton, a triazole compound (AK 2), Dithane M-45, a mancozeb fungicide (AK 3) and Thiram, a dimethyl dithiocarbamate (AK 4) were tested for efficacy to control white muscardine in, Antheraea mylitta D. One and two percent of AK 1 and AK 3, 0.15 to 2% of AK 2 and 2% of AK 4 in aqueous solution were found to be effective in in vitro condition for the control of muscardine. These fungicides on feeding through the T. arjuna leaves continuously for two days in 5th instar larvae inoculated topically with conidia of Penicillium citrinum (4x106 conidia mL-1) resulted in reduction in mortality due to muscardine by 49-94% as against 100% mortality in inoculated control (control 6). AK 1 reduced the mortality by 93 and 94% in the final instar silkworm at 1 and 2%, respectively. AK 2 at 0.05 and 0.1% concentration reduced the mortality by 85 and 87%, respectively. In case of AK 3 and AK 4 at 1% concentration reduced the mortality by 88 and 69%, whereas at 2% reduced mortality by 90 and 75%, respectively. No mortality was noticed in the controls 1 to 4 which indicated the non toxicity at the particular concentrations. Bavistin (AK 1) and Dithane M-45 (AKP 3) at 1 and 2% concentrations were more effective among tested systemic fungicides in suppressing muscardine in tasar silkworm.
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