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Articles by K.M. Ghoneem
Total Records ( 3 ) for K.M. Ghoneem
  Abeer A. Ali , K.M. Ghoneem , M.A. El-Metwally and K.M. Abd El-Hai
  Root rot caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks lupine plants. Isolation trials from diseased plants in some areas of Dakahlia Province (Egypt) was carried out. Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani proved to be the most dominant isolates. Meanwhile, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were less frequent. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors vis: chitosan (CHI), salicylic acid (SA) and hydroquinone (HQ) in comparing to the fungicide Rhizolex T-50 as seed treatments showed significant reduction in the fungal growth in vitro. Chitosan at 8 g L-1 and fungicide completely inhibited the growth of all isolated fungi, while SA at 1.4 g L-1 and HQ at 1.2 g L-1 inhibited the growth of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, respectively. The greenhouse experiments showed that S. rolfesii (No. 6) and R. solani (No. 2) followed by F. solani (No. 5) and F. oxysporum (No. 9) were the most aggressive root rot fungi. Soaking susceptible lupine seeds (Giza 1) in each one of the three selected elicitors showed a significant reduction in seedlings mortality. CHI at 8 g L-1 was superior in increasing the percentage of healthy plants to record 72.5, 80.9, 62.7and 64.3%, when seeds were grown in soil infested with of F. solani, F. oxysporum, R. solani and S. rolfesii, respectively. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i.e., Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow Research Stations. CHI 8 g L-1 proved to be the best elicitor after fungicide, in reducing lupine root rot disease. It showed 41 and 60% reduction in the plants mortality comparing to 56.37 and 69.13% in case of Rhizolex-T in Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow locations, respectively. The treatments were accompanied with a significant increase in lupine growth parameters, yield components and physiological aspects. Application of CHI at 8 g L-1 or HQ at 1.2 g L-1 was the most potent in this respect as compared to check treatment.
  K.M. Ghoneem , M.A. Elwakil and A. El-Sadek Ismail
  Routine seed health inspection of anise seeds showed Puccinia pimpinellae to be a commonally observed fungus on seed samples collected from different locations and the commercial markets of Egypt. Symptoms were shown as black discolorations on seeds. Masses of uredio- and teliospores of the fungus were visually seen. In some samples, a seed washing technique was essential to inspect for the presence of the fungal spores. This is the first report of Puccinia pimpinellae as a seed-borne pathogen of anise in Egypt.
  W.I.A. Saber , K.M. Abd El-Hai and K.M. Ghoneem
  Experiments were carried out to correlate the biochemical features of Trichoderma species and Rhizobium leguminosarum to both biocontrol of Botrytis fabae and improving the productivity of faba bean. Of several Trichoderma species, isolated from phyllosphere of faba bean, six isolates, which grew considerably faster than B. fabae and have moderate to very good antagonism against this pathogen, were selected. Trichoderma’s growth inhibiting properties of B. fabae were due to the combined action of non-volatile and volatile metabolites (with antibiotic nature) and the secretion of cell-wall degrading enzymes. Trichoderma viride (tag3 and tag4) and T. harzianum tag7 have shown to be efficient mycoparasites on B. fabae (in which the mycelium appeared to be fragmented hyphae, vacuolated and disrupted as a result of Trichoderma parasitism). These three Trichoderma isolates were further applied in field of faba bean combined with R. leguminosarum which, the chromatographical analysis of its supernatant showed activity in growth promoter substances. The dual inoculation of seeds with a mixture of R. leguminosarum and T. viride tag4 then foliar spraying of the developed plants with the spore suspension of the same T. viride tag4 at the 35th and 55th day from sowing reduced chocolate spot disease and enhanced nodulation, nitrogenase activity and nitrogen fixing bacterial population in the rhizosphere. In addition to the improvements in the physiological activities (photosynthetic pigments, total phenol and polyphenol oxidase), plant growth and yield. On average, this treatment recorded about 57% reduction in chocolate spot disease and 23% increase in faba bean yield, compared to control plants. Therefore, a commercial production of an inoculum based on a mixture of Rhizobium and Trichoderma is very encouraged.
 
 
 
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