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Articles by K.M. Abd El-Hai
Total Records ( 4 ) for K.M. Abd El-Hai
  M.S. El-Hersh , K.M. Abd El-Hai and K.M. Ghanem
  Lentil is one of the most important legume crops in the world, especially in developing countries. In Egypt, root rot and wilt are the most important fungal diseases. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to study the effect of Molybdenum (Mo) or Cobalt (Co) on lentil pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum) and nitrogen fixation compared with fungicide Rizolex T50. Lentil seeds (cvs. Giza 4 and Giza 9) were soaked 8 h in Mo or Co at concentration of 2 and 5 ppm before seeding while Rizolex T50 was used as seed-coating at 3 g kg-1 seeds. A split plot design with three replicates was used under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that damping off significantly increased in Giza 9 compared to Giza 4. While both Mo and Co decreased it in both cultivars; low level (2 ppm) was more effective. In the field, Mo and Co treatments showed significant decrease in pre and post-emergence damping off as well as dead plants (resulted from root rot and wilt). Additionally, plant height of lentil varieties showed significant increase by Mo (2 ppm) and Co (2 ppm) treatments. Different concentrations of Mo and Co were found to induce high root nodules, nitrogenase activity and nitrogen fixing bacteria. Seed yield increased significantly by Mo and Co treatments except Mo (5 ppm) on Giza 4 variety in second season. Soaking lentil seeds in Mo or Co at 2 ppm is recommended to be incorporated into the production program of lentil to decrease root rot and wilt diseases as well as improve growth and productivity.
  K.M. Abd El-Hai , M.A. El-Metwally and S.M. El-Baz
  The causal pathogens of root rot and stalk rot of soybean were isolated from infected plants. Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani were the main causal pathogens of pre- and post-emergence damping-off. The isolated fungi especially R. solani caused anatomically deformation in the basal portion of infected stem including complete disruption in epidermal cells and degradation of primary cell wall in cortical cells. The growth substances; Ethrel, Indole Butyric acid (IBA) and Cycocel (CCC) were tested in vitro on the growth of the pathogenic fungi. Ethrel at 200 ppm was the most effective in reducing fungal growth. During two successive growing seasons (2008 and 2009) of soybean under different salinity stress (1000 to 3000 ppm), the application of growth substances led to significant reduction in pre- and post-emergence damping-off as well as root and stalk rot diseases. Ethrel, CCC and IBA increased significantly branches number plant-1, photosynthetic pigments, total phenol, proline content, yield and seed quality (oil and protein %). Ethrel and CCC at 200 ppm were the best treatments. Soaking soybean seed in Ethrel, CCC or IBA at 200 ppm is recommended to be incorporated into the production program of soybean to decrease root and stalk rots and increase productivity and seed quality under salt stress conditions.
  M.A. El-Metwally , Kh.M. Ghanem and K.M. Abd El-Hai
  There is an urgent need to improve faba bean yield since this plant remains an important part of the human diet. So, experiments have been designed to determine the effect of some bio-compounds on faba bean growth, chemical composition and chocolate spot disease. In vitro, results revealed that Bio Zeid and Bio ARC completely inhibited the linear growth, mycelia dry weight and sporulation of Botrytis fabae. Plant oils (cumin, cornation, garlic and rocket oils) completely inhibited the sporulation only. In vivo, results (2007/2008 and 2008/2009 seasons) confirmed the positive return of the tested compounds in which, the highest increase in fresh weight was recorded with Bio ARC, while in dry weight the highest increase was recorded with rocket oil. Plant height, number of branches, pods/plant and seeds/pod increased significantly with Acadian-C plant. The weight of 100 seeds reached to the maximum with aminogreen. In addition to the general improvements in N, P, K, Zn, Fe and Mn content. Total chlorophyll reached to the maximum values when using Bio Zeid, Bio ARC, Acadian-C plant and rocket oil. Bio ARC, Bio Zeid and garlic oil revealed the most superior positive effect among other additions on total phenolic compounds. Bio ARC and Bio Zeid led to maximum reduction of chocolate spot disease severity. Bio-, organic and natural additives were found to be most effective in increasing growth, chemical composition and yield parameters of faba bean and decrease the disease severity of chocolate spot disease.
  W.I.A. Saber , K.M. Abd El-Hai and K.M. Ghoneem
  Experiments were carried out to correlate the biochemical features of Trichoderma species and Rhizobium leguminosarum to both biocontrol of Botrytis fabae and improving the productivity of faba bean. Of several Trichoderma species, isolated from phyllosphere of faba bean, six isolates, which grew considerably faster than B. fabae and have moderate to very good antagonism against this pathogen, were selected. Trichoderma’s growth inhibiting properties of B. fabae were due to the combined action of non-volatile and volatile metabolites (with antibiotic nature) and the secretion of cell-wall degrading enzymes. Trichoderma viride (tag3 and tag4) and T. harzianum tag7 have shown to be efficient mycoparasites on B. fabae (in which the mycelium appeared to be fragmented hyphae, vacuolated and disrupted as a result of Trichoderma parasitism). These three Trichoderma isolates were further applied in field of faba bean combined with R. leguminosarum which, the chromatographical analysis of its supernatant showed activity in growth promoter substances. The dual inoculation of seeds with a mixture of R. leguminosarum and T. viride tag4 then foliar spraying of the developed plants with the spore suspension of the same T. viride tag4 at the 35th and 55th day from sowing reduced chocolate spot disease and enhanced nodulation, nitrogenase activity and nitrogen fixing bacterial population in the rhizosphere. In addition to the improvements in the physiological activities (photosynthetic pigments, total phenol and polyphenol oxidase), plant growth and yield. On average, this treatment recorded about 57% reduction in chocolate spot disease and 23% increase in faba bean yield, compared to control plants. Therefore, a commercial production of an inoculum based on a mixture of Rhizobium and Trichoderma is very encouraged.
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