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Articles by K.M. Abd El-Hai
Total Records ( 7 ) for K.M. Abd El-Hai
  K.M. Abd El-Hai and Abeer A. Ali
  Background and Objective: In Egypt, peanut is one of the most important crops for exportation and local consumption. It is a good source of dietary proteins and contains high lipid that is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Damping-off and root rot diseases are the main constraints in peanut production. The current study aimed to determine the effect of cell-free filtrates of Trichoderma harzianum (T), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Y) and/or Rhizobium japonicum (R) on the control of damping-off and root rot diseases in peanut. Materials and Methods: Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii were the common causal pathogens isolated from naturally infected peanut, causing damping-off and root rot diseases. Peanut seeds cv. Giza 6 were soaked for 4 h in each tested treatment before sowing; treatments also used as a foliar spraying at 28 days from sowing. While, fungicide Rizolex-T50 was used as seed coating at 3 g kg–1 seeds. Results: In the in vitro tests, the combined application of T+Y+R culture filtrates at the rate of 1:2:1 and the dual application of T+Y completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi. While, R alone had no significant effect on the fungal linear growth. In vivo, the best protection against damping-off and root rot diseases were observed under fungicide (Rizolex-T50) application followed by the combination of T+Y+R (1:2:1). All culture filtrates of T, Y, R and their combinations stimulated the activity of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and chitinase. The highest activity was obtained by the combined application of T+Y+R (2:1:1) for polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. While the highest chitinase activity was observed with Y treatment alone. The application of T+Y+R increased the percentage of plant survivals and improved plant growth and yield. Conclusion: The application of a mixture of biotic culture filtrates was more effective in decreasing the infection of soil borne fungi in peanut. Wherein, a commercial production of a mixture of growth filtrates of T+Y+R is recommended for therapy both damping-off and root rot diseases in peanut plant.
  Abeer A. Ali , K.M. Abd El-Hai and Marwa A.M. Atwa
  Chocolate spot disease is a major limiting factor of faba bean growth and productivity. In this study, laboratory and field experiments were conducted in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 winter seasons to determine the effect of molybdenum, boron and calcium in comparison to bio-fungicide (blight stop) and chemical fungicide (Kocide 101) for the management of chocolate spot disease and enhancing growth, physiological activities and yield of faba bean plants. The results of laboratory experiments revealed that boron at 6 ppm was the most effective on decreasing pathogen growth after kocide 101 and blight stop. However, calcium 6 mL L-1 has no effect on fungal linear growth. In field, kocide 101 and blight stop led to the maximum reduction of chocolate spot disease severity followed by boron at 2 ppm then molybdenum at 4 ppm then calcium at 6 mL L-1. The highest values of chlorophyll a and b were recorded with calcium 4 mL L-1 followed by boron at 2 ppm. Also, the high total phenol and wyeron acid content obtained from the application of boron at 2 ppm after blight stop and kocide 101. From nutritional elements, calcium at 6 mL L-1 gave highest increase in plant height followed by boron 2 ppm then molybdenum 4 ppm. The highest increase in branches number was recorded with boron at 2 ppm. Calcium at 6 mL L-1 gave the highest values of pods number, plant seed yield and weight of 100 seed followed by boron at 2 ppm. Nutritional elements (boron at 2 ppm, calcium 6 mL L-1 and molybdenum at 4 ppm) are promising trend in decreasing of chocolate spot disease of faba bean, where it decreased infection, environmental friendly and coast effective compared with the ordinary fungicides.
  K.M. Abd EL-Hai , Mohammed S. Elhersh and Mohammed K. Mahmoud
  Background and Objective: Soybean is currently infected by soil-borne fungi, which cause shortage in yield productivity and seed quality. Wherein, the application of bioagent became urgent demand to avoid the side effect of agrochemicals. The aim of study is to investigate the incidence of soybean rot diseases and how to alleviate the causal pathogens of disease. Methodology: Infected soybean samples with typical symptoms of root and stalk rot diseases were collected and the causal fungal pathogens were isolated and identified, i.e., Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Antioxidant (benzoic, citric and salicylic acids) and biotic agents (Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used as control agents against fungal pathogens. Results: The cultivar Giza 111 was more susceptible to fungal pathogens that cause pre and post damping-off compared to the another one. Interestingly, low concentration of antioxidants showed to be more active compared to higher concentration, however, both Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed more active at the higher doses. As well as, the plant heights and branches numbers increased significantly among treatments with both antioxidants and biotic agents in both seasons and cultivars. Seed quality including protein, oil and phosphorus percentages showed increasing as the result of parameters under study. Conclusion: Biotic agents, i.e., B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae, as well as, antioxidants were effective in decreasing pre and post damping-off, increasing plant height and branches number. Seed quality was increased as the result of all treatments.
  Abeer A. Ali , K.M. Ghoneem , M.A. El-Metwally and K.M. Abd El-Hai
  Root rot caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks lupine plants. Isolation trials from diseased plants in some areas of Dakahlia Province (Egypt) was carried out. Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani proved to be the most dominant isolates. Meanwhile, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were less frequent. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors vis: chitosan (CHI), salicylic acid (SA) and hydroquinone (HQ) in comparing to the fungicide Rhizolex T-50 as seed treatments showed significant reduction in the fungal growth in vitro. Chitosan at 8 g L-1 and fungicide completely inhibited the growth of all isolated fungi, while SA at 1.4 g L-1 and HQ at 1.2 g L-1 inhibited the growth of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, respectively. The greenhouse experiments showed that S. rolfesii (No. 6) and R. solani (No. 2) followed by F. solani (No. 5) and F. oxysporum (No. 9) were the most aggressive root rot fungi. Soaking susceptible lupine seeds (Giza 1) in each one of the three selected elicitors showed a significant reduction in seedlings mortality. CHI at 8 g L-1 was superior in increasing the percentage of healthy plants to record 72.5, 80.9, 62.7and 64.3%, when seeds were grown in soil infested with of F. solani, F. oxysporum, R. solani and S. rolfesii, respectively. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i.e., Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow Research Stations. CHI 8 g L-1 proved to be the best elicitor after fungicide, in reducing lupine root rot disease. It showed 41 and 60% reduction in the plants mortality comparing to 56.37 and 69.13% in case of Rhizolex-T in Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow locations, respectively. The treatments were accompanied with a significant increase in lupine growth parameters, yield components and physiological aspects. Application of CHI at 8 g L-1 or HQ at 1.2 g L-1 was the most potent in this respect as compared to check treatment.
  Aml E.A. El-Saidy and K.M. Abd El-Hai
  Background and Objective: This study focuses on finding compounds that are safe to humans and environment, such as propionic and acetic acids that may provide an alternative control of seed-borne pathogens and decrease seed deterioration during storage. The objectives of this study were to reduce sunflower seed deterioration and improve the viability of sunflower seed using environmentally safe organic acids. Materials and Methods: Propionic and acetic acids were applied on sunflower seed at different concentrations under laboratory conditions during different storage periods. After 6 months storage period, the viability of sunflower seed as well as morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design and randomized complete block design for greenhouse experiment. Results: Propionic and acetic acids at different concentrations showed inhibitory effects on the presence of different fungal genera in all storage periods. Propionic acid was most effective followed by acetic acid. Increasing storage periods from 0-6 months significantly decreased germination percentage, germination energy, seedling characters, survived healthy seedlings and seed oil and protein percentages but dead and rotted seeds, as well as rotted seedlings were increased. Treating sunflower seeds with propionic acid (100%) improved germination criteria, seedling characters and seed chemical characters as well as survival seedlings and minimized the dead seeds, rotted seeds and rotted seedlings as compared with the control under all storage periods. Under greenhouse conditions, the maximum growth parameter and physiological characters (chlorophylls a, b, carotenoids and total phenols) were recorded from seed treated with 100% propionic acid after 6 months of storage. Conclusion: It may be concluded that propionic and acetic acids vapors can have considerable fungicidal activity against sunflower pathogens and improve seed viability. Therefore, it is recommended using 100% propionic acid to reduce deterioration and seed-borne pathogens of sunflower under storage conditions.
  K.M. Abd El-Hai , M.A. El-Metwally , S.M. El-Baz and A.M. Zeid
  Seed soaking method or foliar spray of antioxidants (citric acid and salicylic acid at 10 mM) and microelements (manganese and zinc at 2 g L-1) were tested to control of the damping-off and charcoal rot diseases of sunflower (varieties Sakha 53 and Giza 102). Field treatments in two different localities i.e., Tag El-Ezz, Dakahlia province and El-Serow, Damietta province were carried out. The high frequency isolated fungi (M. phaseolina and R. solani) presented in Tag El-Ezz location. On the other hand, M. phaseolina was isolated at a high frequency compared with R. solani in both locations. Sakha 53 was highly susceptible compered with Giza 102 when artificially infected with both M. phaseolina and R. solani. Laboratory results showed that salicylic acid alone or in combination with citric acid completely inhibited the linear growth of both pathogens i.e., M. phasoliana and R. solani in vitro. A positive correlation between the concentrations of Rizolex-T 50 and its effect on the fungal growth were recorded. The dose of 3 g L-1 prevented the growth of R. solani linear growth in vitro. The greenhouse results revealed that Giza 102 variety was highly susceptible to the infection by R. solani. M. phasoliana showed severe symptoms in both sunflower varieties. On contrary, Giza 102 variety was tolerant to damping-off and charcoal rot diseases than Sakha 53 under field conditions. The application of Rizolex-T 50 followed by citric acid showed a highest percentage of healthy plants followed by the combination of citric acid and salicylic acid. The application of manganese combined with zinc was more effective than the microelements alone. All treatments of antioxidants and microelements significantly reduced the incidence of charcoal rot disease. On the other hand, no significant differences between Rizolex-T 50 and salicylic acid treatments was shown. Sakha 53 variety gave the highest values of plant height and number of leaves plant-1 while Giza 102 recorded the highest values of stem diameter and flower head diameter. The application of citric acid combined with salicylic acid maximized the plant height followed by the mixture of manganese and zinc. Manganese treatment followed by the mixture of citric acid and salicylic acid then zinc were the most effective in increasing the number of leaves plant-1. While, Rizolex-T 50 had no significant effect on plant height and number of leaves plant-1. Microelements were more effective than antioxidants on enhancing the stem and flower head diameters. The combination between manganese and zinc followed by Rizolex-T 50 recorded the maximum values of the stem and flower head diameters. Giza 102 variety recorded the highest values of 100 seeds weight, total phenols, photosynthetic pigments and the percentage of seed oil when the above applications were carried out. Sakha 53 variety showed the highest plant yield under the above treatment. The mixtures of citric and salicylic acids were highly effective in increasing plant yield. The highest values of photosynthetic pigments were shown in salicylic acid treatment followed by Rizolex-T 50. Total phenols content was highest due to Rizolex-T 50 application followed by salicylic acid. Except zinc, seed oil concentration increased significantly in both antioxidants and microelements treatments on oil concentration.
  K.M. Abd El-Hai , M.A. El-Metwally and Naglaa T. Mohamed
  Isolation of pathogenic fungi from both cultivars of diseased lupine was carried out in five districts of Dakahlia governorate. The high frequency isolated fungi presented in Temi El-Amdeed followed by Bani-Ebeed district. Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum proved to be the most dominate isolated followed by Rhizoctonia solani . In greenhouse, Giza 1 was high susceptible cultivar for infected with root rot pathogenic fungi. Sclerotium rolfsii followed by R. solani then F. solani were the most aggressive damping-off disease. In the field experiment, Giza 2 cultivar was the best in germination% and more tolerant of damping-off than Giza 1. The application of Rhizolex-T50 followed by H2O2 at low concentrate (0.50 mM) showed a highest percentage of germination within lowest percentage of damping-off. With considerable that, no significant differences between Rhizolex-T50 and low concentrate of H2O2. The high photosynthetic pigments and phenolic content were obtained from the application of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) at moderate concentrate (15 mM) in both cultivars. Giza 2 gave the highest values in these parameters. Soaking both cultivars of lupine seeds in both tested materials increased significantly growth parameter, yield components and seed quality. The moderate concentration of ASA (15 mM) was the most effective followed by the low concentration of H2O2 (0.50 mM). The data suggested that the application of H2O2 at 0.50 mM and ASA at 15 mM as seed soaking could be considered as fungicide alternatives for controlling lupine root rot disease as well as improve growth and productivity.
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