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Articles by K.D. Ingram
Total Records ( 2 ) for K.D. Ingram
  J.K. Northcutt , D.R. Jones , K.D. Ingram , A. Hinton , Jr. and M.T. Musgrove
  Total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, coliforms and pseudomonads in the air in three shell egg processing operations (in-line, off-line and mixed operations) were determined using MicroBio MB2 Air Samplers. Sites were sampled from each facility on three different days (replication) during the same week. Four air samples (1000 L each) were drawn from each sampling site on a given day. Sampling sites, included areas in or near the following on-site locations: hen house (in-line and mixed operations), farm transition room (in-line and mixed operations), egg washers, egg dryer, packer heads, post-processing cooler, nest-run cooler (off-line and mixed operations), loading dock and dry storage. Type of operation (in-line, off-line or mixed), sampling site and the interaction between operation and site had a significant effect on the number of total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, coliforms and pseudomonads recovered (P < 0.05). Highest counts for total aerobic bacteria (5.9 log10 cfu/ml air), molds/yeasts (4.0 log10 cfu/ml air) and coliforms (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) were found in the hen house. Highest counts for pseudomonads were found in the hen house (3.2 log10 cfu/ml air) and behind the egg washer (3.5 log10 cfu/ml air). Lowest counts for total aerobic bacteria (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) and molds/yeast (2.7 log10 cfu/ml air) were found in the post-processing cooler. Few samples in the post-processing coolers, nest-run coolers, loading docks and dry storage areas tested positive for coliforms (0/36, 2/24, 1/36 and 0/36, respectively) and pseudomonads (1/36, 2/24, 5/36 and 6/36, respectively). Data gathered during this study has been useful in identifying the sources and levels of airborne contaminates in commercial shell egg processing facilities.
  A. Hinton , Jr. , J.A. Cason , M.E. Hume and K.D. Ingram
  The presence of Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcasses and in scald tank water in a commercial poultry processing facility was monitored at monthly intervals from July through December. The spread of the pathogen had previously been monitored in the same facility from January through June of the same year. Campylobacter were enumerated on prescalded, picked, eviscerated, and chilled broiler carcasses; on processed carcasses stored at 4°C for 7 or 14 days, and in scald tank water samples. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile of the Campylobacter isolates and the degree of relatedness between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using the MIDI Sherlock Microbial Identification System (MIS). Findings indicated that Campylobacter jejuni was present on carcasses and in scald tank water samples collected from July through December. Processing significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the number of Campylobacter recovered from broiler carcasses, however. Furthermore, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer C. jejuni were consistently recovered from the third tank of the multiple tank scald system than from the first tank. Findings indicated that poultry flocks may introduce several strains of C. jejuni into processing facilities. Additionally, different populations of the pathogen may be carried into the processing plant by successive broiler flocks, and some strains of C. jejuni may reappear in the same processing facility during different times of the year.
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