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Articles by K.C.A. Jalal
Total Records ( 35 ) for K.C.A. Jalal
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.C. Ong , M.S. Noor Azhar , S. Shahbudin and K.C.A. Jalal
  Surface sediments collected from seven estuarine mangrove forests of Terengganu region (100 sampling points) were anaylzed for Pb, Cu and Zn using the sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Pb, Cu and Zn were 10.5±7.12 mg g-1 dry weights, 31.1± 16.5 mg g-1 dry weights and 20.8±13.3 mg g-1 dry weights, respectively. The statistical analysis of Pearson correlation matrix has proved that there is a significant relationship between the metal concentration and the grain size. The concentration of Pb, Cu and Zn decreased with the decrease of mean size particle, suggesting their association with the fine fraction of the sediments. In this study, Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The analysis suggests that all studied elements were considered to be dominantly terrigenous in origin. Data obtained also provides a scientific discovery and data for a better understanding and proper management of the mangrove forests of Terengganu.
  M. Rozihan , E. Ismail , B. Akbar John , K.C.A. Jalal and A. Mohd-Adnan
  The genetic structure of horseshoe crab (Tachypleus gigas) populations were examined using 18 microsatellite markers. Samples were collected from 2 stations of east coast of Peninsular Malaysia and one station from East Malaysia. All the observed allelic frequency showed no significant variation between sampling stations (p>0.05). Mean allelic richness (Ar) was greater in Sarawak population (4.83) followed by Pahang (4.24) and Terengganu (3.57) samples with the overall mean allelic richness of 4.21. Mean inbreeding coefficient (FIS) value was higher in Sarawak population (0.37) followed by Terengganu (0.31) and Pahang population (0.17). The genetic differentiation (FST value) and genetic distance between geographically closer populations was smaller compared to geographically isolated populations. Due to the dwindling population size of horseshoe crabs in Malaysian coast line, present data provides new information in assisting proper management and conservation of this living fossil.
  M. Rozihan , B.A. John , C.R. Saad and K.C.A. Jalal
  The effect of partial and complete substitution of fishmeal (FM) for Soy Bean Meal (SBM) on the growth and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were studied. Post larvae (PL 28) with an average individual length (16.20±0.20 mm) and weight (0.032±0.002 g) were stocked in aquarium filled with 5.0 L of water for a period of eight weeks. Six types of diets with different percentage of FM:SBM ratios were formulated and fed to the test animals at the ratio of 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, 100:0 (diet 1-6, respectively). Significant differences in terms of body weight and orbital length of animal were observed between diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and diets 1 and 6. Larvae fed with diet 3 produced the highest mean weight gain 0.711 g. There was no significant difference in weight gain observed in experiment provided with diet 2, 4 and 5 (~0.4-0.5 g). Larvae fed with diet 1 and 6 showed less weight gain (~0.2 g) with highest percentage of survival (70%) in diet 6 experimental tank. Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were also calculated for each experimental diets besides analyzing their proximate composition. It can be concluded that soy bean (diet 3) could be used for the better growth of M. rosenbergii post larvae. It was also understood that complete removal or absolute utilization of fish meal (100%) in diet would directly affect the weight gain in fresh water prawn (p<0.05).
  K.C.A. Jalal , B.M. Ahmad Azfar , B. Akbar John and Y.B. Kamaruzzaman
  The aim of this study was to examine the phytoplankton patchiness, as expressed by community composition and their diversity during the monsoon and Non-monsoon seasons along the Pahang estuary, Malaysia during 2008. Three zones in the estuary were sampled on both the seasons covering both upstream and downstream of the estuary. Among the identified 42 genera of phytoplankton, the most dominant phytoplankton were Leptocylindrus sp. (19.05%), Lauderia sp. (11.02%) and Skeletonema sp. (10.32%) of total abundance. The least dominant or rare phytoplankton were Ditylum sp. (0.05%), Asterionella sp. (0.04%), Gyrosigma sp. (0.05%), Gymnodinium sp. (0.04%) and Prorocentrum sp. (0.07%) of total abundance. The statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in diversity of phytoplankton between different zones (p>0.05). Result indicated that many of the phytoplankton species inhabiting in Pahang estuary were sensitive to salinity fluctuation. The increased diversity during monsoon might be due to the runoff water that probably brought the phytoplankton of other freshwater sources. Physicochemical parameters showed significant variation between different zones (p<0.05) except for temperature. Present study clearly showed that phytoplankton community in Pahang estuary was quiet diverse during monsoon and dominant during non monsoon season.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar John , K. Zaleha and K.C.A. Jalal
  An effort to assess the utility of 650 bp Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (DNA barcode) gene in delineating the members horseshoe crabs (Family: xiphosura) with closely related sister taxa was made. A total of 33 sequences were extracted from National Center for Biotechnological Information (NCBI) which include horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata), beetles (Class: Insecta), common crabs (Class: Melacostraca) and scorpion (Class: Arachnida) sequences. Constructed phylogram through comprehensive dry lab methodology using advanced software predictive tools showed that beetles are closely related with horseshoe crabs than common crabs (Class: Melacostraca). It was interesting to note that terrestrial Scorpion (Class: Arachnida) were distantly related to horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata). Phylogram and observed Genetic Distance (GD) data were also revealed that Limulus polyphemus was distantly related to all the other horseshoe crab species. Tachypleus gigas was closely related with Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda than with Tachypleus tridentatus. The observed mean Genetic Distance (GD) value was higher in 3rd codon position in all the selected group of organisms. Among the horseshoe crabs high GC content was observed in L. polyphemus (38.32%) and lowest was observed in T. tridentatus (32.35%). We conclude that COI sequencing (barcoding) could be used in identifying and delineating evolutionary relatedness with closely related species.
  S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , B. Akbar John , C. Prasanna Kuamr , S. Murugan and K.C.A. Jalal
  Three teleost fishes, Stolephorus indicus, Stolephorus commersonnii and Terapon jarbua occurring in Parangipettai waters, were barcoded (sequenced) for 648 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) for phylogenetic analysis. All the possible barcode sequences of these three fishes were also extracted via FASTA format from NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnological Information). The genetic distances within the species was small compared to the genetic distances between the species i.e., the genetic distances within S. indicus was 7.67% and the average genetic distance between S. indicus and S. commersonnii was 9.11%. The genetic distance between the families Engraulidae and Terapontidae was 26.48% which was found higher than the genetic distance calculated within the family of Engraulidae (9.11%). This clearly showed that when organisms from distantly placed families are taken, the genetic distance increases. In the present study some phylogeographical signal was apparent in the data. In the neighbor-joining tree for all 10 sequences, two major groups were apparent: clade A comprising of Terapon jarbua and clade B comprising of Stolephorus species. The grouping pattern of clade A showed some phylogeographical signals. The barcode sequence of Lates calcarifer shuffled within other sequences during phylogram constructions was unambiguously placed as an out group in the phylogram. The clades after bootstrapping corresponded well with the expectations. We conclude that precise and accurate identification of Stolephorus indicus, S.commersonnii and Terapon jarbua could be performed using the barcode sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (in the COI gene) of these fishes.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.S. Mohd Zahir , B. Akbar John , K.C.A. Jalal , S. Shahbudin , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  A study was conducted to determine the bioaccumulation of some essential and non-essential heavy metals by the soft tissue of Perna viridis (Green mussel) collected from Pekan, Pahang during November 2009. A total of fifty individuals of Green lipped mussel P. viridis (Family: Mytilidae) were sampled and metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) concentration were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The observed mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Pb and Cd in the soft edible tissue of P. viridis was 576.45±87.78, 45.54±8.75, 19.05±4.12, 17.85±2.28, 0.47±0.14 and 0.3±0.06 μg g-1, respectively. The bioaccumulation of metals in the soft tissue flowed in Fe>Zn>Cu >Co>Pb>Cd order indicating that the essential heavy metal accumulates in faster rate than non-essential metals. Comparison with earlier studies showed that Fe and Cu bioaccumulation level was higher in samples from Pekan area with average of 576.45 and 19.05 μg g-1, respectively. All the other metals concentration was lower in the soft tissue of green mussel indicating comparatively lower heavy metal contamination in the Pekan, Pahang compared with other coasts.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Siti Waznah , M.C. Ong , S. Shahbudin and K.C.A. Jalal
  The percentage organic carbon content of 62 bottom estuarine sediment in Pahang river estuary were analyzed using the wet dichromate oxidation method. In this study, the organic carbon distribution ranged from 0.09 to 2.05%. The high concentration can be found near the Pahang river mouth while the low concentration occurred at upstream. The sediment particle size at the same transects were also measured with the dry sieving and laser diffraction method. The average concentration of organic carbon was 0.88% while the average grain size was 2.44 φ. In this study, the carbon organic showed a significant relationship with the mean size (p<0.05) with the organic carbon content increase with the increase of mean size values.
  K.C.A. Jalal , Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Fairuz , B. Akbar , S. Shahbudin and Y. Faridah
  Physicochemical parameters influence the vertical spatial distribution of microbial communities in any water bodies. Based on this perspective, a study on physicochemical parameters and bacterial community was carried out from five stations on January-June 2009 at the Kuantan estuary of Pahang, Malaysia. The temperature was ranged from 25.01-27.48°C, salinity fluctuation observed 0.03-25.84 ppt, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 6.10 to 10.73 mg L-1, specific conductivity ranged from 0.10 to 42.43 mS cm-1, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) ranged from 0.05 to 26.36 g L-1) and pH varied from 5.69 to 8.11 and chlorophyll a ranged 0.01 to 1.14 μg L-1. The nitrite concentration was higher at St. 5 (0.19 mg L-1) followed by St. 4 (0.16 mg L-1) and it was lowest at St. 1 (0.13 mg L-1). Similarly, high phosphorus content (0.17 mg L-1) was found at St. 4 followed by St. 5 (0.16 mg L-1) while, it was lowest at St. 1 (0.08 mg L-1). Out of 19 isolated bacteria most dominant bacteria were Citrobacter freundii followed by Leuconostoc sp. and Staphylococcus xylosus. High bacterial colony (cfu mL-1) was observed at St. 4 (570 cfu mL-1) in water column followed by St. 5 (490 cfu mL-1). In contrary, it was lowest at St. 2 (213 cfu mL-1). Meanwhile, the highest bacterial colony in sediment was observed at St. 4 (390 cfu mL-1) followed by St. 5 (333 cfu mL-1). It was lowest observed at St. 2 (167 cfu mL-1). Nevertheless, a continuous monitoring of water quality is needed in this estuary especially at St. 4 and 5 which could be alarming in the long run due to deposition of nutrients from the outlets of fishing villages and industry sources.
  B. Akbar John , K.C.A. Jalal , Y.B. Kamaruzzaman and K. Zaleha
  Endotoxins from gram-negative microorganisms initiates clot formation in blood when it is accidentally encountered by horseshoe crab. This property was extensively studied by various researchers as a result Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test was established. The LAL tests in general were 3 to 300 times more sensitive than the United States Pharmacopeial (USP) rabbit pyrogen test method. It should be noted that major differences among the LAL preparations lie in the area of sensitivity. Differences, up to 100-fold, exist in the sensitivity of the various LAL preparations to the same endotoxin. It is also considerate that the Information on the molecular level interaction between horseshoe crab blood and endotoxin would provide detailed information about the clotting process. Based on the above perspective review of literature was established to elucidate the compounds involved in the clot formation in horseshoe crab blood while encountering with bacterial endotoxin. Since LAL preparation is important for its application in clinical, pharmaceutical, public health and environmental areas, this paper will also discuss some molecular level details in Lysated Amebocyte interaction in clot formation.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Siti Waznah , M.S. Mohd Zahir , M.C. Ong , S. Shahbudin , K.C.A. Jalal , Z. Rina Sharlinda , A.T. Shuhada , B. Akbar John , B. Joseph , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  Bottom sediments from 62 stations at Pahang river-estuary were analyzed for the concentrations of Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn) and Cobalt (Co). Heavy metal concentrations were analyzed by using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average dry weight concentrations of Cr, Mn and Co were 62.80±20.04, 416.21±127.41 and 7.93±3.25 μg g-1, respectively. The observed concentrations of the studied metals were significantly higher near the estuary and declining as the sampling points were further away from the estuary. The Enrichment Factors (EFs) were calculated and all elements showed metal contamination was predominantly of terrigenous in origin.
  S. Shahbudin , Z. Hafifi Hafiz , B. Akbar John , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and K.C.A. Jalal
  Present study was conducted to determine the propagation and biodiversity of corals on artificial reefs at Teluk Kalong and Pasir Akar, Malaysia to check the feasibility of artificial reef to rehabilitate natural reef ecosystems and to provide artificial habitat for marine organisms. Two types of artificial reef deployed in these areas were Dome Reef and EnviroReef which were developed by the Dorken Company. Based on the results obtained, coral distribution was higher at Pasir Akar compared to Teluk Kalong. The Shannon diversity index (H’) and evenness index (EH’) of coral at Teluk Kalong were 0.6425 and 0.1766, respectively while the Shannon diversity index (H’) and Pielou evenness index (EH’) of coral at Pasir Akar were 1.7410 and 0.3247, respectively. Overall, 2 species were found and identified at Teluk Kalong and 10 species were at Pasir Akar with Seriatopora hystrix as the dominant species at both the stations. Coral distribution was higher on Dome Reef compared to EnviroReef. The diversity index (H’) and Pielou evenness index (EH’) of EnviroReef were 0.5359 and 0.1284 respectively while it was 2.2192 and 0.4274, respectively in Dome Reef. A total of 3 and 9 species were found and identified from the EnviroReef and Dome Reef, respectively with Seriatopora hystrix being the dominant in both the reef structures. We conclude that both artificial reefs structures were suitable as habitat for coral propagation.
  K. Zaleha , I. Hazwani , H. Siti Hamidah , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and K.C.A. Jalal
  Tachypleus gigas (Muller) the Southeast Asian horseshoe crab, is found to nest on sandy beaches in Malaysia, thus biological information about survival of this living fossil become crucial. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of salinity on duration to maturation and hatching success of their eggs. The effect on size, morphological changes and growth of the hatched larvae was also investigated. Eggs of T. gigas were collected from the newly nests made on breeding beach of Pekan, Pahang (Lat 3° 56.915’N; Long 103°21.933’ E) in Peninsular Malaysia. Triplicates of five different salinities (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ppt) were chosen for the experiments. A vernier caliper was used for size measurement under a stereo microscope. The morphological changes in prosomal width and length, body length, telson length, opisthosoma length and total length were recorded. Salinity range of between 25 and 35 ppt could be an optimal incubation condition. No egg hatched at salinity 15 and 20 ppt. Highest percentage of hatching was found at 30 ppt (91.11±5.57%). Hatching also occurred at 25 and 35 ppt with 65.56±1.73% and 74.4±2.31% success rate, respectively. The shortest molting time occurred at 15 ppt (25 days after hatching). Total size changes in larvae were also highest at 15 ppt but lowest at 35 ppt. There was no mortality in larvae maintained in all treatments. Early larval development would also affected by the salinity stress but its seemed tolerable.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.C. Ong and K.C.A. Jalal
  Heavy metal (Cu, Zn and Pb) concentrations in the muscle, gill and stomach of fish species from Mengabang Telipot River, Terengganu were measured with a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The relationships between fish size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues were also investigated. The average concentration of Cu, Zn and Pb was 13.39, 19.88 and 0.30 mg kg-1 dry wt., respectively. A marked relationship between metal contents of the studied species was observed. Generally, the mean concentrations of all the elements were relatively high in stomach, followed by gills and lowest in muscle. The positive relationship of these elements with fish length and weight were observed, suggesting the accumulation of these elements were occurred in the fish. Overall, metal levels found were lower than the international standards of reference and the examined fish were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption.
  K.C.A. Jalal , M. Najiah , M. Fathiyah , Y. Kamaruzzaman , Mohd Nor Omar , S.M. Nurul Amin and Irwandi Jaswir
  A study was conducted on physico-chemical parameters and bacterial pollution in Orbicularia orbiculata (Wood, 1828) and Anadara granosa (L.) at Pahang estuary from January to February 2009. The temperature was ranged from 28.00-29.87°C, pH 7.79-8.10, specific conductivity 51.49-55.89 mS cm-1, salinity 18.74-30.10 ppt., TDS 33.63-39.59 g L-1, DO 6.80-7.50 mg L-1. The nitrate concentration was found to be highest at Station 3 (14.09 μg at N-l) and lowest at Station 2 (7.04 μg at N-l). The nitrite concentration showed highest concentration at Station 4 (7.07 μg at N-l) and lowest concentration at Station 2 (1.67 μg at N-l). Whilst the phosphate content was higher (10.78 μg at N-l) at Station 3 and lowest at Station 2 (2.34 μg at N-l). A total of 60 Orbicularia orbiculata and 40 Anadara granosa samples were subjected to microbiological analysis. The bacteria were isolated using non selective agar such as TSA agar and selective agar before they were identified using conventional methods in combination with API identification kit. A total of nine bacterial species were identified from Orbicularia orbiculata. They were Escherichia coli., Aerococcus viridans 1, Aerococcus viridans 2, Gemella morbillorum, Kocuria varians, Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus sciuri, Streptococcus pneumoniae. Whilst, Nineteen bacterial species were identified in Anadara granosa such as Aeromonas hydrophila group 1, Aerococcus viridians 1, Aerococcus viridans 2, Chromobacterium violaceum., Enterobacter gergoviae, Erwinia sp., Escherichia coli, Enterococcus avium, Gemella morbillorum, Kluyvera sp., Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc sp., Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus xylosus. The finding indicates that the edible mollusc of Pahang estuary was polluted with pathogenic bacteria which could be harmful for human consumption.
  M.B. Hossain , S. Ahmed , M.F. Rahman , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , K.C.A. Jalal and S.M.N. Amin
  Liquid Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric System (LCMSMS) method was developed and validated in shrimp matrix for determination of nitrofuran metabolites in the laboratory of fish inspection and quality control, Department of Fisheries, Matshya Bhaban, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This confirmatory method was used for testing samples for residues of the metabolites of the following nitrofuran compounds, furazolidone (3-amino-2-oxazolidinone, AOZ); furaltadone (5-methyl-morpholino-3-amino-2-oxazolidinone, AMOZ); nitrofurazone (semicarbazide, SEM) and nitrofurantoin (1-aminohydantoin, AHD) in shrimp. The data were generated (3 levels and seven replicates per level) on each of three days for shrimp. The mean recoveries from the tissues were 88-110%, the decision limits (CCα) were 0.12-0.23 ppb and the detection capabilities (CCα) 0.21-0.38 ppb. CCα and CCβ were calculated using the procedure set out in ISO Guide 11843. Nevertheless, CCα value for all nitrofuran metabolites can be investigated and meet the specified easily met the specified EU MRPL of 1 μg kg-1 ranged from 0.12-0.23 μg kg-1 and suitable for routine quality control operations.
  G. Iyyapparajanarasimapallavan , P. Sampath Kumar , C. Prasanna Kumar , K.C.A. Jalal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and B. Akbar John
  The distribution and abundance of the gelatinous zooplankton namely hydromedusae, scyphomedusae, siphonophore, ctenophore, salps, doliolids, appendicularians and chaetognaths were investigated in two seasons at seven stations in East Tamil Nadu coast, India. The occurrences of gelatinous zooplankton were observed to be more in summer than in winter. However, the composition of different species in each group varied from all the stations and seasons. Apart from the individual variation in seasonal distribution, most of the species appeared to be cosmopolitan in the Indian waters. A total of 34 species from summer and 17 species from winter were recorded during the present study. The hydromedusae were dominant in both the seasons of the study period. Ephyrae of the scyphomedusae were also noticed in both the seasons.
  C. Prasanna Kumar , B. Akbar John , S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and K.C.A. Jalal
  Cultivable marine bacteria associated with the sponge Hyattella cribriformis (Hyatt, 1877) was studied through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These marine bacterial colonies produced on Zobell Marine agar plates were distinguished based on phenotypic characters viz., colony morphology and pigmentations of the individual colonies. The extracted DNA from the individual bacterial isolates was PCR amplified using universal 16S primers and subjected to DNA sequencing. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Tool) analysis finds that Vibrio diazotrophicus, Bacillus subtilis, B. firmus, Thalassomonas agarivorans, Oleiphilus messinensis, Planococcus maritimus and Brevundimonas vesicularis are the culturable marine bacteria associated with the sponge Hyattella cribriformis. The phylogram constructed clearly delineated the bacterial isolates into its corresponding phylum. The cultivable bacterial density of Hyattella cribriformis was found to be 65x10-5 CFU mL-1. Submitted sequences in NCBI were assigned with accession numbers (FJ834327, FJ834328, FJ834329, FJ845392, FJ845393, FJ845394 and FJ845395). It could be concluded that, application of 16S rRNA sequencing approach would yield novel insights into the diversity of bacteria associated with sponges and hence would help in exploring the commercial importance and their industrial applications.
  M. Parven , M.B. Hossain , M.F. Rahman , K.C.A. Jalal , N. Jahan and S.M.N. Amin
  Six months-long experiment was carried out in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh from September 2008-February 2009 to evaluate the limnological parameters affecting monthly abundance of Chironomid larvae and their role in the diet of catfish, Clarias batrachus. The water-quality and soil parameters were monitored and found to be within suitable range for freshwater aquaculture. The composition of the benthic macro-invertebrates at the bottom indicated that Chironomidae was most dominant group in this pond. The body-weight percentage of the organisms showed that Chironomids and Oligochaetes were major two groups. The quantitative and qualitative studies of Chironomid larvae indicated that there was monthly variation in the abundance of Chironomids where Chironomus was most dominant. The highest (3585.19 m-2) and the lowest (548.15 m-2) abundance of Chironomids in 3 samples were recorded in the month of January 2009 and October 2008, respectively. Gut content analysis suggested that Chironomids was dominant food item in the diet of Clarias batrachus. The maximum 768 and minimum 25 occurrences were recorded in the months of December and October 2008, respectively in 5 fishes sampled from the experimental pond. The electivity indices suggested a shifting to Chironomid larvae from negative selection to positive selection in different months.
  K.C.A. Jalal , A.A. Shamsuddin , M.F. Rahman , N.Z. Nurzatul and M. Rozihan
  A study was conducted to determine the total content of carotenoids, in Isochrysis sp. under stress condition (nitrogen starvation). Isochrysis sp. was cultured in f/2 medium at optimum light intensity (1200 Lux) with constant aeration (4.5 L min-1) at 8 pH. Salinity of the water was maintained between 20-24 g L-1 and temperature range was 20-24°C. The culture of Isochrysis sp. showed a short lag phase lasting about 24 h followed by exponential phase starting from day 2 until day 10. In day 4, specific growth rate (μ) for Isochrysis sp. was 1.6059 day-1, the highest rate compared to other day. Stress parameter (NO3¯ starvation) was introduced into the mass culture on day 4 by eliminating NO3¯ in f/2 media. There was considerable declining (p<0.05) in cell count was observed in the absence of nitrogen proving the dependency of carotenoid production over the nitrogen limitation which probably due to the main role played by the nitrogen in various metabolic activities of the cell. The highest total carotenoid per cell was recorded at day 10 with 0.001932347 mg mL-1, whereas the lowest total carotenoid content per cell was observed at day 4 with 0.000100649 mg mL-1. The finding reveals that it is best to harvest the carotenoid on day 10, when the maximum carotenoid can be obtained.
  M. Najiah , N.I. Aqilah , K.L. Lee , Z. Khairulbariyyah , S. Mithun , K.C.A. Jalal , F. Shaharom-Harrison and M. Nadirah
  Massive mortality of cage-cultured red hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Como River, Kenyir Lake, Malaysia was investigated. Moribund fish showing erratic swimming, sluggishness and hemorrhagic eyes were collected for the study. Water quality parameters were measured on-site. The highest temperature was 32.70°C at the surface while lower temperature was 30.85°C at 6 m. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) was highest 7.05 mg L-1 at 4 m while lowest 6.15 mg L-1 at 10 m. The pH value was highest 8.28 at 6 m and lowest 7.52 at surface. The result has shown that un-ionized ammonia levels ranged from 0.00046-0.01 ppm within the optimum range. While Nitrite (0.003 ppm) and Nitrate values (0.1-0.7 ppm). The water quality parameters were showed their values within the accepted range of water quality for aquaculture. Bacteria were isolated from diseased fish using blood and nutrient agars, and identified using BBL Crystal™ Enteric/Non-fermenter ID and Gram Positive ID Systems and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility analysis. Results showed the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Burkholderia cepacia in the fish liver and Staphylococcus aureus in the fish eyes, suggesting a possible case of warm-water streptococcosis associated with S. agalactiae with multiple bacterial complications. Nevertheless, a continuous long term monitoring is essential for the sustainable development of cage aquaculture in Como river of Lake Kenyir Malaysia.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar , K.C.A. Jalal and S. Shahbudin
  A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the different level of accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in 21 days fingerlings tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The concentration of these metals in the gills was detected through Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). It was observed that the tilapia fingerlings can accumulate up to 3000 ppb of Zn after 21 days of exposure. The accumulation rate of Cu at 7 to 14 days was between 0.01 to 0.02 μg kg-1 while steady increase (0.06 ppb) was detected when exposure period extended to next 7 days. Meanwhile, gradual increase in Zn accumulation was observed at all the time. The fish had accumulated up to 142 μg kg-1 of Pb at the highest concentration in 30 days of exposure proved that there is a elevated three fold increase in Pb uptake compared with first ten and 20 days of exposure. It was also proven from this study that fishes exposed to longer period with minimal concentration tend to accumulate less heavy metal in gills since the heavy metals are transported to other parts of the body.
  S. Shahbudin , K.C.A. Jalal , Y. Kamaruzzaman , N. Mohammad- Noor , T. Chit Dah and B. Akbar John
  Artificial seagrass plays an important role for the distribution of benthic organisms and fishes. Based on this perspective a study was conducted in the Sepanggar Bay located in the Northern part of Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia from November 2006 to February 2007 to determine the potentiality of artificial seagrass as an alternative habitat for marine fishes. The artificial seagrass area is located approximately 100 m from the coastline at the depth between 6 and 10 m and made up of Dorken Advance Engineer Rubber which was tightened on a square 1 x 3 m metal mat. The sampling process was done by capturing photos and video recording. The picture of the fishes was taken as many as possible to increase the accuracy and precision of fish identification. A total of 497 fish species belong to 17 families were observed in 5 sampling periods throughout the study. Out of 17 families, Pomacentridae was dominant with 25.55% (127 individuals) followed by caesionidae with 22.13% (110 individuals). It was observed that Caesio sp. from a family Caesionidae was dominant genus in the artificial seagrass area, followed by Chromis sp. and Pomacentrus sp. from a family Pomacentridae. Overall Shannon diversity (H’) value of 2.5315 indicates artificial sea grass could play a vital role as a nutrient rich habitat for marine fishes.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.S. Zahir , B. Akbar John , A. Siti Waznah , K.C.A. Jalal , S. Shahbudin , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  An effort to analyze selected heavy metal accumulation by the razor clam (Solen brevis) from Tanjung Lumpur was conducted on January to April 2010. A total of fifty individuals of Razor clam Solen brevis were sampled and metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganase (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) Concentrations were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Among the metals Fe occurred in elevated concentration in the soft tissue of razor clam followed by Zn. Cd was found to be in least concentration in the sample. Mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the soft tissue were 415.2±56.52, 87.74±11.85, 18.71±2.10, 8.64±1.75, 0.67±0.29 and 1.61±0.45 μg g-1 dw, respectively indicating that the bioaccumulation of essential metals in the soft tissue was greater than the non essential heavy metals. Metal accumulation in the soft tissue of razor clam followed Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Pb > Cd order in present study. The observed concentration of acute toxicity of metals in Solen brevis (Family: Solenidae) from Tanjung Lumpur Coastal waters was lower than the permissible limit recommended by National and international standards proved that this species could be utilized for human consumption.
  M. Nadirah , H.H. Ruhil , K.C.A. Jalal and M. Najiah
  A total of 182 isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides were identified from 40 healthy red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus cultured at two important rivers in Terengganu, Malaysia namely Como River and Terengganu River from east coast Malaysia. P. shigelloides count in Digestive Tract Content (DTC) and Muscle (MUS) of red hybrid tilapia cultured at Terengganu River was 1000-fold higher than Como River. Antibiotic susceptibility test was also performed on Plesiomonas shigelloides isolates. The incidence of antibiotic resistance was higher in Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from red hybrid tilapia cultured at Terengganu River compared to Como river. Thus, the findings of the study indicate that P. shigelloides from tilapia muscle and an intestine could be an alarming for serious public health risk to consumers.
  S. Murugan , S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , C. Prasanna Kumar , K.C.A. Jalal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and B. Akbar John
  A detailed study on the length weight relationship of Mugil cephalus in Vellar estuary was conducted between January 2004 and December 2005. Statistical tests such as regression coefficient ‘b’ and ‘a’ tests were performed to compare the b values of males and females from the hypothetical value of 3. The b value of male (2.7658) differed significantly from the hypothetical value of 3 (t = -2.8586<0.05), the b value of female (2.8586) did not differ significantly from the hypothetical value (t = -1.0158>0.05). Values of both males and females were less than 3 which proved the negative allometry growth pattern.
  M.M.R. Siddiquee , M.F. Rahman , N. Jahan , K.C.A. Jalal , S.M.N. Amin and A. Arshad
  The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp.
  M.F. Rahman , K.C.A. Jalal , Nasrin Jahan , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , R. Ara and A. Arshad
  Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from selection of floodplains, formation of floodplain management committee, planning of fish culture activities, exercise of technical intervention, selective stocking with large fingerlings, guarding, monitoring and supervision, adopting harvesting strategies, marketing and distribution of benefits are extremely essential to ensure sustainability of the program. Mutual trust, sense of respect and good working relationship among the committee members are the basic social elements required for the success of community based fish culture initiatives.
  K.C.A. Jalal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Arshad , R. Ara and M.F. Rahman
  A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H’) was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30°C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm-1), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L-1), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L-1), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 μg L-1), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L-1), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L-1), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L-1). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the presence of several outskirts could be alarming for the sustainable development of fish and other aquatic organisms in Kuantan estuary in the long run.
  B.H. Ridzwan , Y. Su Fong , M.H. Hasniwati , B. Shaari and K.C.A. Jalal
  The effects of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiceace) extract on coronary perfusion pressure, contractility and heart rate of isolated rats hearts were studied by using the technique of Langendorff system. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used as a positive control and standard while saline was used as negative control. The extract at doses of 1.0 and 10 mg, respectively showed a significant decrease in coronary perfusion pressure compared with saline. The extract dose of 10 mg showed a maximum decrease in coronary perfusion pressure, developed tension and heart rate. The next part of the study was to investigate the involvement of nitric oxide in the coronary vasodilatory effects of the extract. The inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, NG-nitro-L-arginine metil ester (L-NAME) 300 μM was perfused together with Krebs-Henseleit solution in the heart for test group, while the time-matched control group without L-NAME. L-NAME did not abolish the decrease of coronary perfusion pressure and developed tension by the second injection. So, nitric oxide is not involved in the mechanism of coronary vasodilation. In conclusion, the M. citrifolia extract decreased coronary perfusion pressure and developed tension.
  I.M. Rafiqul , A. Hassan , G. Sulebele , C.A. Orosco , P. Roustaian and K.C.A. Jalal
  A Study was conducted on the salt stress culture of blue green algae S. fusiformis. The blue green algae S. fusiformis was grown at the different salinity of sea water as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 14.0, 15.0, 16.0, 17.0 and 18.0 ppt which were enriched with Zarouk medium. A new steady state was established after carry out an initial lag phase. The observed growth rate was slower and inversely related with concentration of salt stress i.e. the more was salinity, the slower was growth rate during the experiment. Instead of growth, a decrease in biomass was also observed in high salinity. The specific growth rate at all salt stress culture was lower than that of control (0 ppt). The result showed that the protein and carbohydrate content were varied from 37.3 to 56.1% and 16.8 to 31.4 %, respectively. At 1.0 and 1.2 ppt a marked increase in lipids of 19.6 and 15.6% were observed. Highest carotenoid content of 3.53 mg-1 g dry weight was found at 16 ppt, which is significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to control. Phycocyanin was high at 1 ppt (93 mg 1 g dry weight), which is significantly lower than that of control. The result showed that the production of lipids and carotenes in salt stress culture which would be 1-1.2 ppt and 15-16, ppt respectively in laboratory culture conditions.
  Akbar John , C. Prasannakuma , P.S. Lyla , S. Ajmal Khan and K.C.A. Jalal
  An effort to assess the utility of 650 bp Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (DNA barcode) gene in delineating the members closely resembled marine fin fishes belonging to the family Latidae was made. To address the issue, all 40 barcode sequences of fishes belonging to Latidae family available at NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnological Information) along with the barcode data generated from commonly available fish Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) from Parangipettai coastal waters was used. The average GC content of selected three fishes belongs to Latidae was found to be 48.87%. Lates niloticus from Tanzanian waters showed less GC content (47.70%) whereas L. calcarifer from South China sea showed high GC content (49.61%) among the Latidae species studied. Compare to Australian, Indian and Singapore (48.1-48.89%) water L. calcarifer, Myanmar and South China species shows high average GC content (49.38-49.41%). The phylogenetic and genetic distance data showed that the maximum genetic distance is present in 3rd codon position in all the selected species. It is apparent from the genetic distance that the GD between L. calcarifer and L. niloticus was observed to be higher than the GD between P. waigiensis and L. niloticus in all the codon positions. The expected clustering of the species in separate internal branches was well observed in the constructed phylogram with high bootstraps. We conclude that COI sequencing (barcoding) in identifying the morphologically similar species of the family Latidae.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , N.T. Shuhada , B. Akbar , S. Shahbudin , K.C.A. Jalal , M.C. Ong , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  Surface sediment samples were collected from 5 different zones of the Langkawi coastal waters, Malaysia to determine the concentration of Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) by using the sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of heavy metals was compared with the world average concentration of shale values. It was found that the total concentration of Pb was between 12.25 and 71.38 μg g-1 dw with mean concentration value of 41.87±7.30 μg g-1 dw which was two fold higher than the average shale value (20 μg g-1). Statistical analysis showed that the significant variation in Pb concentration between different sampling stations (p<0.05). Copper (Cu) concentration was ranged between 0.40 and 30.95 μg g-1 dw with mean concentration of 11.19±5.2 μg g-1 dw which was lower than the average shale value (45 μg g-1 dw). Enrichment Factor (EF) showed that source of Pb concentration in the study area was partially due to anthropogenic activities and the source of Cu was dominantly from terrigenous in origin. Results of the analysis showed that a coastal area of Langkawi is facing moderate metal pollution with increased rate of deposition.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , Z. Rina , B. Akbar John and K.C.A. Jalal
  Now-a-days, bioaccumulation of toxic metals in aquatic animals causes serious threats to the human health when they are consumed. Thus the detection of toxic elemental concentration in aquatic flora and fauna has attracted various researches to determine their toxic levels in organism’s edible parts. Upon considering this issue, the accumulation of some heavy metals such as Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in Muscle and gill tissues were determined in commercially important fishes. Five species (Nemipterus japonicas, Chirocentrus dorab, Lutjanus sebae, Otolithes ruber and Pampus argenteus) were collected from south west coast of Malaysia, covering 3 states (Johor, Melaka and Negeri Sembilan). Metal concentration was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In general, higher metal accumulation was detected in gill tissues than the muscle tissue of selected fishes while Hg concentration was higher in muscle tissues except in Pampus argenteus. Similar observation was noted in As and Pb accumulation in N. japonicus and L. sebae, respectively. Hg and As concentration was higher in P. argenteus muscle and gill tissues on the other hand higher Pb and Zn level was noted in Muscle tissues L. sebae. Higher concentration of Pb and Zn were detected in gill tissues of L. sebae and O. ruber, respectively. There was no species specific differences in metal accumulation were noted (p<0.05). It was also observed that essential metal level in fish samples were greater than non-essential toxic metals. The metal concentrations found in this study were lower than the national and international standard maximum permissible limits for human consumption. Therefore, no public health problem would be raised in the consumption of these fishes.
  C. Prasanna Kumar , B. Akbar John , S. Ajmal Khan , P.S. Lyla , S. Murugan , M. Rozihan and K.C.A. Jalal
  An effort was made to assess the utility of 650 bp partial Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (DNA barcode) gene in delineating the members of taxonomically ambiguous marine fin fishes (Family: Mugilidae). To address the issue we used all the 95 barcode sequences of Mugilidae family available at NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnological Information) along with the barcode data generated from Mugilidae fishes of Parangipettai coastal waters. The average GC content of Mugilidae was found to be 46.46%. Crenimugil crenilabis showed less GC content (44.55%) whereas Liza macrolepis showed high GC content (48.53%) among the mullet species studied. The phylogenetic and genetic distance data showed that Mugil platanus and M. liza represent the continuum of same species. Among the members of family Mugilidae, the genus Mugil might possibly contains more haplotype diversity as revealed by intra-species genetic distance data. Species within genera of Mugilidae family invariably clustered in single clade with high bootstrap value. We conclude that partial COI sequencing (barcoding) in identifying the members of the family and that way has resolved the taxonomic ambiguity among the members of the family Mugilidae.
 
 
 
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