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Articles by K.A. Abbas
Total Records ( 10 ) for K.A. Abbas
  Mohamed B. Jamilah , K.A. Abbas and R. Abdul Rahman
  This study was aiming to present some approaches by which the shelf life of fresh beef cuts was extended. These approaches were based on using organic acids. Therefore the work was started with highlighting the deterioration of some quality attributes due to spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. These attributes included colour, flavour and lipid oxidation changes. In a given holding temperature, the deterioration are controlled by three major factors, they are pH, water activity and microbial growth. The four organic acids approaches (citric, lactic, acetic and tartaric) were presented as fresh beef shelf life extenders due to their abilities to decrease the pH and antimicrobial effects. The pros and cons of these approaches as well as the latest published researches were stressed at the end of this review. This information helps the researchers and gives them the motivation to develop new superior approach.
  A. Mohamed , B. Jamilah , K.A. Abbas , R. Abdul Rahman and K. Roselina
  This study was a part of a research project aiming to investigate the texture characteristics of protein - starch interaction in fish based product keropok lekor. Accordingly, the current review study focused on some physicochemical (molecular weight, viscosity, chemical composition and swelling power) and thermorheological (gelatinization, retrogradation and viscoelsticity) characteristics of sago starch alone and in mixtures with other ingredients such as sucrose, salts and hydroclloids. The inferred outcome of this extensive survey revealed that the gelatinisation temperature for sago-water mixture ranged from 69.4-70.1°C which was low compared to sweet potato, tania and yam starches. The role of using hydrocolloids in starch-based foods was to control the rheological properties as well as modifying the texture of the products, enhaning or modifying the gelatinization and retrogradation behaviour and improving water-holding capacity of the system. In the presence of sucrose or sodium chloride, the gelatinisation temperatures of sago starch shifted to higher temperatures and its enthalpy decreased. The addition of salts caused an elevation or depression of gelatinization temperature and gelatinization enthalpy, depending on their types and concentrations used. However, sodium chloride appeared to exhibit a maximum inhibitory effect on starch gelatinisation at a concentration of 6-9%.
  K.A. Abbas , F.A. Ansari , A.S. Mokhtar , A.O. Ashraf , M.A. Wan and S.M. Sapuan
  The present work aims at finding an optimized finite difference scheme for the solution of problems involving pure convection heat transfer in slab shaped fresh water fish pieces. A generalized mathematical model was written in dimensionless form and an optimized scheme of solutions was worked out. A fully explicit finite difference scheme, an implicit finite difference scheme and different combination of the two, with varying values of weighing factor were thoroughly studied. All the possible options of temperature-time grid sizes were considered. It was found that the simplest explicit finite difference scheme with ten characteristic length division and Fourier number increments one sixth of the square of the space division size gives best convergence and minimal truncation error. Numerically computed and measured temperature-time variations were found to have excellent agreement.
  H.S. Kadhim , A.S. Abdulamir , R.R. Hafidh , F. Abubaker and K.A. Abbas
  Problem Statement: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is a significant health problem worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of tumor development and progression are complicated but likely involve the interaction of tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, cell cycle regulatory proteins and other factors. Hence this study tries to explore the role of p53, bcl-2, c-myc and Ki-67 in TCC of the bladder in correlation with different clinicopathological criteria which are tumor grade, muscle invasion by the tumor and disease presentation, primary or recurrent tumor. Approach: Thirty patients with TCC of the bladder were involved in the period from March 2007 - May 2008. Tumors were diagnosed by histopathology and compared with 20 control subjects. The expressions of p53, bcl-2, c-myc and Ki-67 proteins were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: Increased expression of p53 and bcl-2 was associated with tumor grade and muscle invasion (p<0.05), but not with disease presentation (p>0.05). C-myc expression was only associated with muscle invasion (p<0.05). Ki-67 was associated with tumor grade, muscle invasion and tumor presentation (p<0.05). The correlation among these cell cycle proteins was generally significantly positive except for the correlation between bcl-2 and c-myc was poor. Conclusions: There was a significant oncogenic role of p53 and bcl-2 on TCC in terms of muscle invasion and tumor grade. C-myc was associated only with tumor invasiveness and Ki-67 proved to act as a reliable prognostic factor of TCC. This could highlight the hot targets of TCC anti-cancer therapy and the reliable targets for disease prognosis.
  K.A. Abbas , A. Mohamed , B. Jamilah and M. Ebrahimian
  Freshness of fish in most markets was found to be the significant quality parameter. The state of fish freshness was assessed by various methods but most of them were costly, time-consuming and not user friendly tools which made the development of simple, easy, undemanding and reliable system for the evaluation of fish freshness unresolved goal. The findings of many researchers revealed that there was remarkable correlation between the pH and the fish freshness which suggested that this physical characteristic could be used as suitable tool for the analysis and fish freshness evaluation rather than sensory evaluation method which inherent many uncertainties. Based on this demand, this paper was established with the objective of reviewing the literature which focused on the pH as one of the simple and reliable freshness indicator for cold stored fish samples.
  F.A. Ansari , A.S. Mokhtar , K.A. Abbas and N.M. Adam
  The present work is to demonstrate how some very simple problems are made mathematically complex and seemingly tedious due to academic or business compulsions. There are some problems in which mathematical model are developed after making many simplifying assumptions. But, when it comes to solving these models, very sophisticated and complex schemes are applied. For such problems, dual policy does not make sense and in many cases the problem may be tackled in a simpler way to get comparable accuracy. The present paper reports one such example. It deals with the development and authentication of computer software for estimating building cooling load. The software is simpler to use, needs fewer input data and is more versatile compared to any other commercially available, exorbitantly costly and extensively used software. The effects of significant building parameters like orientation, window glass shade type, number of glass panes used, wall insulation, roof type and floor type can be easily investigated. Effects of all these parameters have been investigated for a typical building block to arrive at an intelligent decision. With any other software or method, it cannot be made so conveniently. All the above mentioned advantages are without sacrificing accuracy and reliability.
  K.A. Abbas and Ibrahim O. Mohamed
  A temperature history detected by measuring sensor, along with other relevant system’s parameters have been used to predict the surface film conductance through transient temperature measurements in fish flesh samples during their cooling in a chilled air duct at a constant temperature of 1°C. The Inverse Heat Conduction Problem (IHCP) solution was performed by using the sequential function specification method to estimate heat flux, which was then utilized to solve the direct problem for the temperature distribution at any position including at the sensor position on the fish sample using Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference scheme. The predicted and measured temperature distribution profiles were compared numerically, yielding good agreement indicating the accuracy of the present approach in calculating surface film conductance.
  F.A. Ansari , K.A. Abbas , D. Mat Hashim and S.M. Sapuan
  Apple, orange and potato samples were exposed to chilled air blast, first with their natural skin and then after removal of the skin and transient temperature-time variations were recorded at the center. This data record was used to determine the thermal diffusivity of each produce sample by the empirical approach of the first author and his co-workers. Thermal diffusivity was found to be higher than the literature value. This is due to additional cooling effect resulting from desiccation of the exposed samples. The value decreased with the amount of cooling of the produce. The rate of reduction was fast in the beginning and later it had slowed down. The rate of decrease of thermal diffusivity was slow in case of produce samples with natural skin. In case of peeled off samples, this rate in the decrease was more pronounced. This must be due to the removal of natural moisture barrier; the skin. The variations of thermal diffusivity have been plotted and correlations developed. Temperature calculations with these variable thermal diffusivity values agreed well with the measured temperatures.
  A.S. Abdulamir , R.R. Hafidh , L.K. Mahdi , T.R. Al-jeboori , F. Abubaker and K.A. Abbas
  This study was carried out for evaluating the interplay of p53, p21 and Ki-67 proteins along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma oncogenic transformation sequel. Therefore, Fifty colorectal cancer and 14 adenoma patients were involved. The histopathological expression of p53, p21 and Ki-67 proteins was evaluated by immunohistochemistry assay. The results revealed that remarkable overexpression of p53 protein was seen in the tumorous sections of cancer patients more than that in adenoma patients (p<0.05), while no p53 overexpression was found in the corresponding non-tumorous sections. The positive expression of p21 protein was lower in the tumorous sections of cancer patients than that of adenoma patients (p<0.05) and was higher in the non-tumorous than the corresponding tumorous sections of both CRC and adenoma patients (p<0.05). The expression of p53 and p21 proteins in cancer patients was inversely correlated to each other (p<0.05) and the expression of p21 rather than p53 protein was associated with colorectal cancer staging and grading (p<0.05). Ki-67 was higher in cancer than in adenoma patients and higher in the tumorous tissue sections than the corresponding non-tumorous sections (p<0.05). The overexpression of p53 and downexpression of p21 proteins in colorectal cancer might be responsible largely for triggering the transformational changes in normal mucosa to develop adenoma and trigger also the malignant cascade from adenoma to carcinoma. P53 overexpression was shown to occur due to the mutated dysfunctional p53 gene product which loses its transcriptional activator necessary for p21 expression. The level of p21 protein which is a quantitatively affected by the loss of p53 activation is responsible for the association with cancer staging and grading that serves as a good indicator for the disease progression.
  A.S. Abdulamir , R.R. Hafidh , N. Abdulmuhaimen , F. Abubaker and K.A. Abbas
  The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotyping of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBL) in Head and Neck Cancers (HNCA) patients and to relate this with the level of Cell-Mediated Immunity (CMI) measured by in vitro lymphoproliferative assay, in order to evaluate immune suppression in HNCA patients and its possible mechanisms. Accordingly, one hundred twenty two HNCA patients and 100 control subjects were enrolled in this study. HNCA patients were classified into 42 nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 66 carcinoma of larynx and 14 Hypo Pharyngeal Carcinoma (HPC). For measuring CMI, Microculture Tetrazolium assay (MTT) was applied on the freshly isolated lymphocytes of HNCA patients and control group. Immunophenotyping of PBL was carried out for monitoring the blood level of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD21+ cells in HNCA patients in comparison with controls. The results of both assays have been integrated, revealed the presence of remarked immune suppression in HNCA patients in comparison with the controls, especially for NasoPharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) patients who were immunosuppressed more than other studied HNCA types. Surprisingly, NPC group showed the lowest CMI level along with the highest level of PBL subsets, particularly NPC patients expressed the highest level of CD8+ cells among HNCA. It was inferred that CD8+ cells were more likely immune suppressor rather than cytotoxic cells and this is the principal factor for inducing sustained immunosuppression in HNCA and in NPC in particular. Furthermore CD4/CD8 ratio proved to be a reliable index for assessing the immunological status of HNCA patients and more dependable index than other immunity-evaluating factors.
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