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Articles by K. Zaleha
Total Records ( 7 ) for K. Zaleha
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar John , K. Zaleha and K.C.A. Jalal
  An effort to assess the utility of 650 bp Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (DNA barcode) gene in delineating the members horseshoe crabs (Family: xiphosura) with closely related sister taxa was made. A total of 33 sequences were extracted from National Center for Biotechnological Information (NCBI) which include horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata), beetles (Class: Insecta), common crabs (Class: Melacostraca) and scorpion (Class: Arachnida) sequences. Constructed phylogram through comprehensive dry lab methodology using advanced software predictive tools showed that beetles are closely related with horseshoe crabs than common crabs (Class: Melacostraca). It was interesting to note that terrestrial Scorpion (Class: Arachnida) were distantly related to horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata). Phylogram and observed Genetic Distance (GD) data were also revealed that Limulus polyphemus was distantly related to all the other horseshoe crab species. Tachypleus gigas was closely related with Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda than with Tachypleus tridentatus. The observed mean Genetic Distance (GD) value was higher in 3rd codon position in all the selected group of organisms. Among the horseshoe crabs high GC content was observed in L. polyphemus (38.32%) and lowest was observed in T. tridentatus (32.35%). We conclude that COI sequencing (barcoding) could be used in identifying and delineating evolutionary relatedness with closely related species.
  B. Akbar John , K.C.A. Jalal , Y.B. Kamaruzzaman and K. Zaleha
  Endotoxins from gram-negative microorganisms initiates clot formation in blood when it is accidentally encountered by horseshoe crab. This property was extensively studied by various researchers as a result Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test was established. The LAL tests in general were 3 to 300 times more sensitive than the United States Pharmacopeial (USP) rabbit pyrogen test method. It should be noted that major differences among the LAL preparations lie in the area of sensitivity. Differences, up to 100-fold, exist in the sensitivity of the various LAL preparations to the same endotoxin. It is also considerate that the Information on the molecular level interaction between horseshoe crab blood and endotoxin would provide detailed information about the clotting process. Based on the above perspective review of literature was established to elucidate the compounds involved in the clot formation in horseshoe crab blood while encountering with bacterial endotoxin. Since LAL preparation is important for its application in clinical, pharmaceutical, public health and environmental areas, this paper will also discuss some molecular level details in Lysated Amebocyte interaction in clot formation.
  K. Zaleha , I. Hazwani , H. Siti Hamidah , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and K.C.A. Jalal
  Tachypleus gigas (Muller) the Southeast Asian horseshoe crab, is found to nest on sandy beaches in Malaysia, thus biological information about survival of this living fossil become crucial. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of salinity on duration to maturation and hatching success of their eggs. The effect on size, morphological changes and growth of the hatched larvae was also investigated. Eggs of T. gigas were collected from the newly nests made on breeding beach of Pekan, Pahang (Lat 3° 56.915’N; Long 103°21.933’ E) in Peninsular Malaysia. Triplicates of five different salinities (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ppt) were chosen for the experiments. A vernier caliper was used for size measurement under a stereo microscope. The morphological changes in prosomal width and length, body length, telson length, opisthosoma length and total length were recorded. Salinity range of between 25 and 35 ppt could be an optimal incubation condition. No egg hatched at salinity 15 and 20 ppt. Highest percentage of hatching was found at 30 ppt (91.11±5.57%). Hatching also occurred at 25 and 35 ppt with 65.56±1.73% and 74.4±2.31% success rate, respectively. The shortest molting time occurred at 15 ppt (25 days after hatching). Total size changes in larvae were also highest at 15 ppt but lowest at 35 ppt. There was no mortality in larvae maintained in all treatments. Early larval development would also affected by the salinity stress but its seemed tolerable.
  K. Zaleha , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar John and M.C. Ong
  Balok, Pekan and Penor have been observed to be nesting grounds of the horseshoe crab. Present study was conducted to assess the metal concentration in sediment of horseshoe crab the nesting ground along the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. Acid Digestion was performed using (HF, HNO3, HCl, EDTA and H3BO4) before determining the actual concentration of heavy metals using ICPMS. 2-way ANOVA was used to determine the significance of the results. In all stations, Pb was in highest concentration (40.36 μg g-1) followed by Cu (13.44 μg g-1) and the least concentrated metal in the nesting ground was Cd with the high concentration of (0.26 μg g-1). EF values showed that Pb is of anthropogenic source and Cd is of minimum enrichment. Although the levels of Pb are low and regarded harmless to the horseshoe crab, the fear of it affecting those who consume the eggs as well as the crab is still in consideration.
  K. Zaleha , B. Ibrahim , B. Akbar John and B.Y. Kamaruzzaman
  Recent investigations on harpacticoid copepods have demonstrated their higher nutritional values compared to Artemia and rotifer. Nevertheless, studies on the potential use of tropical harpacticoid copepods as live feed in aquaculture are still limited. The present study was carried out to compare the generation time between selected harpacticoid species cultured in laboratory condition as an early step to choose a potential live feed for aquaculture practices. Some estuarine species of harpacticoids were isolated from Merchang river mouth, an estuary of the South China Sea in Terengganu and undergone trial culture procedure. Three species (Paradactylopodia oculata, Schizopera knabeni and Robertsonia knoxi) were successfully adapted to the laboratory condition thus their generation time were recorded. Copepod samples were cultured under controlled laboratory condition at temperature 25±1°C and salinity 27±1 ppt for 40 days and fed with 0.1 mL of baker’s yeast (0.02 g/L/day). The mean generation time (day) was different for each species where P. oculata showed the long generation time (17.19±4.74 days) followed by S. knabeni (10.19±3.51 days) and R. knoxi (8.93±1.00 days). The species with short generation times could be a better choice for fish larval rearing and hatchery activity due to the early time of nauplii production and hence we suggest the R. knoxi could be used as a potential live feed (on the basis of their generation time) in aquaculture practices.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.C. Ong , K. Zaleha and S. Shahbudin
  Muscle and feather in tissue of 40 juveniles and 40 adult green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (L.) collected from Muar Estuary, Johor were analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration using a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In this study, the average concentration of Cu was 8.96 μg g-1 dry weights, Cd with 0.58 μg g-1 dry weight, Pb averaging 2.28 μg g-1 dry weights and Zn averaged to 86.73 μg g-1 dry weight. The highest accumulation of metal studied was found in feather sample compared to the muscle. The positive relationship of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn with P. virdis length suggesting that the accumulation of these metals were formed in the mussel. In all cases, metal levels found were lower than the guideline of international standards of reference and the examined bivalve were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar John , M.H. Aqilah Megat and K. Zaleha
  An attempt was made to determine the various heavy metal accumulative concentrations in different body parts of horseshoe crab [Tachypleus gigas (Muller, 1785)]. Heavy metal accumulation levels were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Highest mean concentration (μg g-1 wet weight) of iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) was observed in gill tissue (1336.73±2.08 ppm), apodeme (921.11±8.12 ppm), Gut (129.94±13.8 ppm) and apodeme (4.16±0.54 ppm) samples, respectively while lowest concentrations of metals were observed in gut (Fe = 556.61 ppm), mouth (Zn = 605.36 ppm), leg tissue (Cu = 60.85 ppm) and leg tissues (Cd = 2.12 ppm). Results clearly showed that bioaccumulation of essential metal concentration in all the analyzed body parts were higher than non-essential heavy metals with the flow of metals in Fe>Zn>Cu>Cd order. Statistical predictions revealed that bioaccumulation of metals were not significantly influenced by weight, total length and carapace width of the animal. The heavy metal accumulations in samples were higher than the national and international permissible limit range hence not suitable for human consumption.
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