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Articles by K. Tanaka
Total Records ( 11 ) for K. Tanaka
  M. A. I. Khan , K. Ueno , S. Horimoto , F. Komai , K. Tanaka and Y. Ono
  This study evaluated the upland weed control potentiality, germination inhibition ability and growth suppression efficiency of the five combinations of green tea waste – rice bran compost (GRC). GRC was prepared by mixing green tea waste and rice bran at five ratios, and allowed to decompose for 5 mo. Application of GRC suppressed weed growth up to 93.4% in number and 95.4% in dry weight in 2004, and 80.7% in number and 73.4% in dry weight of weeds in 2005, as compared with the untreated control (only soil) under the greenhouse condition. Among the five combinations of GRC, rice bran alone (RC) showed the significantly highest and green tea waste alone (GC) showed the lowest weed suppressing activity in both years. The weed control potentiality of GRC was increased by the increase of rice bran percentages in the mixture. The exudates of GRC inhibited the hypocotyl and radicle elongation of lettuce seedlings when examined by the sandwich method. The water extracts of GRC also inhibited the germination and radicle elongation of the test species in the seed germination tests. The growth inhibitory activity of RC was greater than that of GC, and radicle elongation was more sensitive than seed germination and hypocotyl elongation in all bioassays. The inhibitory activity of GRC water extract varied with the test species and was higher for the dicotyledonous species than monocotyledonous species. The inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling growth increased as the extract concentration increased. The concentration dependent responses of test species to the water extract of GRC indicated that it might contain phytotoxic substances that were responsible for growth inhibition. Moreover, GRC promoted spinach growth significantly compared with the untreated control. These results suggest that the use of 30% green tea waste + 70% rice bran mixture compost (GRC-3) might be useful to control the upland weeds and enhance spinach growth among the five combinations of GRC, and it may reduce the use of hazardous synthetic agrochemicals. Optimization of the combination of composting materials is necessary for the multipurpose use compost.
  M. A. I. Khan , K. Ueno , S. Horimoto , F. Komai , K. Tanaka and Y. Ono
  Rice bran compost (RC) was evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions for eco-friendly weed control of vegetable crops in organic farming systems. RC was applied 7 days before spinach seed sowing, at the rate of 0% (control), 10%, 20% and 30% of soil (v/v) in the greenhouse and 2 kg m-2 under field conditions. RC significantly controlled the number and dry weight of weeds, and the weed control potentiality was increased by the increased application of RC in both years. The efficacy of RC in reducing weed emergence and dry weight of broadleaf species was higher than grass weeds. Among the broad leaf weeds, Lamium amplexicaule L was the most sensitive to RC and was drastically reduced by the increased application of RC. Under field conditions, the total number of weeds and the dry weight of weeds were also significantly reduced with the application of RC, compared with the untreated control. The growth inhibition potentiality of water soluble fractions of RC was also tested with seed germination and radicle elongation of test species (barley, oat, tomato and lettuce). The concentration response curves for the test species were drawn by plotting the percentage of germination against the logarithm of the concentration. Considering the I25 value (defined as 25% inhibition of control) both for seed germination and radicle elongation, it was indicated that water soluble fractions of RC was more effective in the suppression of dicotyledonous species (tomato and lettuce) than monocotyledonous species (barley and oat). The results of the preliminary experiment with fresh rice bran under greenhouse conditions showed that fresh bran suppressed spinach seed germination when applied as 10% rice bran in soil but RC did not show a significantly negative effect up to 20% RC application, compared with the control. Moreover, RC enhanced spinach growth. Considering both the weed control potentiality and spinach growth enhancing ability of RC, the effective appplication rate of RC is between 10-20% of soil (v/v) for weed control as well as the successful growth of spinach. This research indicates that RC has the potential of being used as a natural herbicides.
  A. Nishimura , Y. Hayashi , K. Tanaka , M. Hirota , S. Kato , M. Ito , K. Araki and E.J. Hu
  In this study, the environmental load of photovoltaic power generation system (PV) during its life cycle and energy payback time (EPT) are evaluated by LCA scheme. Two hypothetical case studies in Toyohashi, Japan and Gobi dessert in China have been carried out to investigate the influence of installation location and PV type on environmental load and EPT. The environmental load and EPT of a high-concentration photovoltaic power generation system (hcpV) and a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic power generation system (mc-Si PV) are studied. The study shows for a PV of 100 MW size, the total impacts of the hcpV installed in Toyohashi is larger than that of the hcpV installed in Gobi desert by 5% without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of the hcpV assumed to be installed in Gobi desert is shorter than EPT of the hcpV assumed to be installed in Toyohashi by 0.64 year. From these results, the superiority to install PV in Gobi desert is certificated. Comparing with hcpV and mc-Si PV, the ratio of the total impacts of mc-Si PV to that of hcpV is 0.34 without consideration of recycling stage. The EPT of hcpV is longer than EPT of mc-Si PV by 0.27 year. The amount of global solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of mc-Si PV is larger than the amount of direct solar radiation contributing to the amount of power generation of hcpV by about 188 kW h/(m2 year) in Gobi desert. Consequently, it appears that using mc-Si PV in Gobi desert is the best option.
  T Imaizumi , Y Higaki , M Hara , T Sakamoto , M Horita , T Mizuta , Y Eguchi , T Yasutake , I Ozaki , K Yamamoto , S Onohara , S Kawazoe , H Shigematsu , S Koizumi , S Kudo and K. Tanaka

Limited epidemiological evidence suggests that genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) may be involved in tobacco-related hepatocarcinogenesis. We conducted a case–control study, including 209 incident cases with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and two different control groups [275 hospital controls and 381 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) without HCC], to investigate whether CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1 and NAT2 polymorphisms are related to the risk of HCC with any interaction with cigarette smoking. Overall, no significant associations with HCC were observed for any genotypes against either control group. However, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.0045) between CYP1A2 -3860G>A polymorphism and current smoking on HCC risk when we compared HCC cases with CLD patients; adjusted odds ratios [ORs; and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for G/A and A/A genotypes relative to G/G genotype were 0.28 (0.12–0.66) and 0.18 (0.04–0.94), respectively, among current smokers (P trend = 0.002), as compared with 1.28 (0.80–2.06) and 0.76 (0.34–1.71), respectively, among never/former smokers (P trend = 0.96). Similarly, in CYP1A2 G/G genotype, significant risk increase was observed for current smoking (OR = 4.08, 95% CI = 2.02–8.25) or more recent cigarette use (e.g. pack-years during last 5 years, P trend = 0.0003) but not in G/A and A/A genotypes combined (OR for current smoking = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.63–3.03; P trend for pack-years during last 5 years = 0.40). These results suggest that the CYP1A2 -3860G>A polymorphism modifies the smoking-related HCC risk among CLD patients.

  K. Tanaka , Y. Tani , J. Asai , F. Nemoto , Y. Kusano , H. Suzuki , Y. Hayashi , K. Asahi , M. Nakayama , T. Miyata and T. Watanabe
  Aims  Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive measure of the accumulation for advanced glycation end products, has been reported to be a useful marker for diabetic vascular risks in the Caucasian population. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between skin autofluorescence and vascular complications in non-Caucasian patients with Type 2 diabetes.

Methods  Subjects in this cross-sectional study comprised 130 Japanese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Skin advanced glycation end products were assessed by skin autofluorescence using an autofluorescence reader. Association between skin autofluorescence and severity of vascular complications was evaluated.

Results  Of the 130 patients, 60 (46.2%) had microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy, 10 (7.7%) had macrovascular complications and 63 (48.5%) had micro- and/or macrovascular complications. Skin autofluorescence increased with severity of vascular complications. Independent determinants of skin autofluorescence were age (β = 0.24, < 0.01), mean HbA1c in previous year (β = 0.17, = 0.03), microvascular complications (β = 0.44, < 0.01) and macrovascular complications (β = 0.27, P < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that diabetes duration (odds ratio 1.15, < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (odds ratio 1.04, P = 0.01), skin autofluorescence (odds ratio 3.62, P = 0.01) and serum albumin (odds ratio 0.84, P < 0.01) were independent factors for the presence of vascular complications in these patients.

Conclusions  Skin autofluorescence had independent effects on vascular complications in Japanese patients with Type 2 diabetes. This indicates that skin advanced glycation end products are a surrogate marker for vascular risk and a non-invasive autofluorescence reader may be a useful tool to detect high-risk cases in non-Caucasian patients with diabetes.

  M. Abualtayef , M. Kuroiwa , K. Tanaka , Y. Matsubara and J. Nakahira
  A new development of a three dimensional (3D) multi-layer wind-induced circulation model of Ariake Sea region is described in this study. The hydrodynamic equations are derived from 3D Navier Stokes equations and solved using the Fractional Step Method (FSM). The 3D hydrodynamic model is first tested against analytical solution in order to investigate the performance of the model. And then, it was applied to the Ariake Sea. For model test, the numerical results are almost identical to the analytical solutions. It was shown that the numerical model developed was capable to simulate wind-induce flows in shallow semi-enclosed/enclosed waters.
  K Yamaguchi , K. i Suzuki and K. Tanaka

Electron staining reagents were examined to find a possible substitute for uranyl acetate (UA) in electron microscopy of bacterial ultrathin sections. Four kinds of stains, platinum blue (Pt-blue), oolong tea extract (OTE), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA), were examined in comparison with UA either with or without post-staining with lead citrate (Pb). Electron microscopy was performed on sections from Spurr-embedded cells of a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus cereus NBRC 13597, and a Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli NBRC 3301. Both Pt-blue and OTE showed staining similar to each other and to that of double staining with UA and Pb in B. cereus, while in E. coli the cytoplasmic membrane appeared less dense when compared with UA and Pb. KMnO4 stained excessively to some extent, but showed images of the best contrast in the cytoplasmic membrane comparable with UA and Pb among the four reagents. PTA could stain the peptidoglycan layer but gave images of low quality for both bacteria. This study demonstrated that none of the reagents examined showed staining results of the same quality or better than the conventional method with UA and Pb. However, stains of Pt-blue, OTE and KMnO4 could possibly be an alternative candidate for the UA according to the structure in question.

  H. Miki , J. Morita , R. Kato , Y. Ijiri and K. Tanaka
  In the present study, we investigate whether JM-1232(-) ((-)-3-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2- oxoethyl]-2-phenyl-3,5,6,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta[f]isoindole -1(2H)-one) affects vessels directly or indirectly. We examined the effects of JM-1232(-) with several antagonists on rat carotid arteries using the Magnus method. JM-1232 (-) suppressed contraction non-specifically on norepinephrine, potassium chloride and calcium chloride at a high concentration (Emax: 10-5-10-4 M). There were no significant change in each pretreated group consisting of flumazenil, propranolol, atropine, cimetidine, imetit and N(omega)-nitro-L- arginine methyl ester, whereas a significant suppression was observed (p<0.05) in PK11195 (50% inhibition concentration (IC50): 3.2±0.9 (x10-5) M) and diphenhydramine (IC50: 5.6±1.7 (x10-5) M). These results suggest that only a high concentration of JM-1232(-) reacts for carotid artery relaxation directly (EC50: about 10-5 M). Thus JM-1232 (-) (less than 10-6 M) might not directly induce a vessel relaxation that can cause hypotension.
  S Okada , M Nagabuchi , Y Takamura , T Nakagawa , K Shinmyozu , J. i Nakayama and K. Tanaka

Recent studies have revealed various functions for the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) in diverse biological phenomena, such as regulation of cell division, DNA repair and transcription, in yeast and animals. In contrast, only a limited number of proteins have been characterized in plants, although plant SUMO proteins are involved in many physiological processes, such as stress responses, regulation of flowering time and defense reactions to pathogen attack. Here, we reconstituted the Arabidopsis thaliana SUMOylation cascade in Escherichia coli. This system is rapid and effective for the evaluation of the SUMOylation of potential SUMO target proteins. We tested the ability of this system to conjugate the Arabidopsis SUMO isoforms, AtSUMO1, 2, 3 and 5, to a model substrate, AtMYB30, which is an Arabidopsis transcription factor. All four SUMO isoforms tested were able to SUMOylate AtMYB30. Furthermore, SUMOy-lation sites of AtMYB30 were characterized by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) followed by mutational analysis in combination with this system. Using this reconstituted SUMOylation system, comparisons of SUMOylation patterns among SUMO isoforms can be made, and will provide insights into the SUMO isoform specificity of target modification. The identification of SUMOylation sites enables us to investigate the direct effects of SUMOylation using SUMOylation-defective mutants. This system will be a powerful tool for elucidation of the role of SUMOylation and of the biochemical and structural features of SUMOylated proteins in plants.

  H. H. Arafat , K. Tanaka , H. Sawada and K. Suzuki
  Lipopplysaccharide (LPS) is a variable component among the bacterial species as wall as strains of a single species and this characteristic is helpful for discrimination between strains. However, we have only limited information about LPS variation and influence by environment in Agrobacterium strains. In this study, we analyzed variation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) among 34 Agrobacterium strains; 9 strains of A. tumefaciens, 15 strains of A. rhizogenes, 9 strains of A. vitis and one A. rubi strain. Most of the A. tumefaciens strains and every A. rhizogenes strains had high and low molecular weight LPS molecules (LPS I and LPS II, respectively). On the contrary, every A. vitis strains and two exceptional A. tumefaciens strains lacked LPS I but had a single LPS II band. The LPS profiles were stable phenotype in the Agrobacterium strains. Abiotic stresses such as high salinity, high and low pH and high and low temperature were given to representative strains in each species. Only a little alternation in the LPS profiles was observed under the stress conditions except the high temperature to LPS I. Cultivation at 35°C or higher resulted in a significant size reduction of LPS I in A. tumefaciens C58 strain down to the size similar to that of LPS II which attenuated the tumor formation. On the contrary, cultivation at the high temperature induced the exceptional A. tumefaciens strain MAFF 03-01001 to synthesize LPS I, which was absent at lower temperature in the strain. This phenomenon has never been observed so far at least in the family Rhizobiaceae.
  N Matsuda , S Sato , K Shiba , K Okatsu , K Saisho , C. A Gautier , Y. s Sou , S Saiki , S Kawajiri , F Sato , M Kimura , M Komatsu , N Hattori and K. Tanaka

Defective mitochondrial quality control is shown to be a mechanism for neurodegeneration in some forms of Parkinson's disease.

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