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Articles by K. TONA
Total Records ( 23 ) for K. TONA
  K. Tona , K. Agbo , B. Kamers , N. Everaert , H. Willemsen , E. Decuypere and M. Gbeassor
  Chicken post-hatch performance is known to be related to embryonic developmental parameters. However, strain or genotype differences with regard to embryo physiological parameters have received little attention. A total of 1,200 hatching eggs produced by Lohmann Brown (LB) and Lohman White (LW) breeders of the same age were studied. Between 62 and 150 h of incubation, eggs Resonance Frequency (RF) was measured as indicator of early embryonic development. Also, albumen pH was measured between setting and d 8 of incubation. From d 10 to 18 of incubation, remaining albumen and embryos were weighed. During the last days of incubation, hatching occurrences were monitored after every four hours and hatched chicks were recorded. Results indicate that RF of LW eggs were lower than that of LB eggs (p<0.01) and starting time point of RF decrease occurred earlier in LB eggs than in LW eggs. Albumen pH of LB eggs was lower than that of LW eggs at day 8 of incubation. Remaining albumen weight at 14 and 16 d of incubation was lower in LB than in LW (p<0.05) while embryo weights increased more rapidly in LB strain than in LW strain. It is concluded that LB and LW embryos have different growth trajectories and should be incubated at different conditions.
  K.E. Nouboukpo , K. Tona , B. Kamers , N. Everaert , H. Willemsen , O.M. Onagbesan , M. Gbeassor and E. Decuypere
  The effects of in ovo injection of L-carnitine on hatchability and juvenile performance of 360 layer-type chicks were investigated. Fertilized eggs were injected in air chamber with L-carnitine (500 and 1000 μmol) dissolved in 0.9% of Saline (NaCl) at d 18 of incubation. Two control groups (non-injected and injected with 0.9% of Saline were also included. Hatched chicks was recorded after every 4 h, beginning at 490 h of incubation and ending at 514 h, for incubation length and hatching spread determination. At the end of incubation, hatched chicks were recorded according to treatment for determination of hatchability. At 3, 7 and 14 d post-hatch, chick body weight (BW) and morbidity were recorded. Also, at d 3 and 7 post-hatch, 14 birds from each of 2 replicate groups within each treatment were used for intestine and yolk sac weight determination. Results indicate that BW, hatchability, or relative intestine weights were not affected by treatment. However, incubation length was longer while hatching spread was shorter in L-carnitine groups compared to control groups. Yolk sac relative weight was decreased by treatment with L-carnitine (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of chicks showing morbidity sign was lower in L-carnitine treated groups from d 7 onwards. The results of the present study suggest that in ovo injection of L-carnitine at d 18 of incubation delayed hatching time but resulted in narrower hatching spread, faster utilization of yolk sac content and improved morbidity.
  K. Tona , K. Bahe , B. Kamers , K. Mertens , B. Kemps , O.M. Onagbesan , E. Decuypere and M. Gbeassor
  Increasing egg storage duration affects egg internal quality, especially albumen quality by increasing pH and decreasing Haugh Unit (HU). But, in most of African contexts, egg producers, sellers and consumers store the eggs in different conditions regardless of quality deterioration. In this study, 1920 eggs produced by Lohmann layer flocks of 48 weeks and 58 weeks of age were investigated. The eggs were divided randomly and equally in 4 groups and stored at 3 different conditions for 21 days at: 1) Room Conditions (RoC); 2) Super Market Conditions (SmC) and 3) Refrigerator Conditions (RfC). During storage, all the eggs were weighed and Resonant Frequency (RF) were measured at day 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 according to flock age and storage condition. Then at the same days, sample of 30 eggs per flock and per storage condition were used to measure albumen pH and HU. The results indicate that eggs weight decreased significantly with storage duration (P<0.001). But, egg relative weight loss was lower (P<0.01) for eggs of RfC group than that of SmC and RoC groups. There was a positive linear relationship between RF and storage duration. But, daily increase in RF was affected by layer flock age. The highest daily increase was obtained in RoC group or SmC group, respectively for flock of 48 weeks of age or flock of 58 weeks of age. Eggs of RfC groups had the highest albumen HU and the lowest albumen pH (P<0.001). It is concluded that detrimental effects of storage duration are more or less pronounced depending on storage conditions especially storage environmental temperature. It is recommended that, in African countries, consumption eggs can be stored at room or super market conditions not longer than 6 days but in the refrigerator up to 21 days.
  A. Teteh , E. Lawson , K. Tona , E. Decuypere and M. Gbeassor
  After the ban in 2006 of the use of antibiotic growth promoter, the search of an alternative led to the utilization of plants like Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves of this plant are known to have an important component of macronutrients (protein, energy, amino acids), of micronutrients (vitamins, minerals...) and of anti-nutritive factors such as polysaccharides, tannins, saponins, phytates etc. In the aim to give more knowledge about it, leaves are collected from Akoumapé (Vo district in Togo), dried, pulverized and soaked in ethanol-water (50/50). The mixing obtained is homogenized, filtered and evaporated to obtain hydro alcoholic extract. This extract was used to determine its contents in some chemical groups such as total phenols (4.2%), tannin (2.38%), total flavonoids (0.2%) and polysaccharides (21.1%). In addition, a total of 615 day-old broilers (Ross) were divided at random into 3 groups (M0, M1 and M2) fed, respectively with diet 1 (0%), diet 2 (1%) and diet 3 (2%). During the assay, witch lasted for 4 weeks, 15 chicks of each group were slaughtered weekly to collect and weight liver, pancreas, spleen, bursa and thymus. At the same moment, body weight, feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were determined. At 28th day, chicks of groups M1 and M2 grew better and have better feed conversion than chicks of groups M0. The same trend is followed by relative organ weights. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leaves incorporated at 1 and 2% in feed can improve growth and the lack of significant difference between 1 and 2% could be attributed to the high content of diet 3 in anti-nutrients especially saponins that impair the digestion and absorption of nutrients especially lipids.
  K. Tona , A. Agbonon , K. Eklu-Gadegbeku , A. Teteh , P. Simons , J. Buyse , N. Everaert , B. Kemp , E. Decuypere and M. Gbeassor
  In commercial poultry husbandry practice, the hatchery takes over the incubation of bird eggs in order to provide as many day-old chicks as needed at any time to farmers. The main bottleneck for poultry industry development in Togo is the lack of day-old chick supply. Indeed, there is no proficient hatchery which can cover the needs of the farmers because of lack of information about hatchery management or people trained as hatchery managers. Also, there is lack of information about management practice aspects, etc. With the aim to promote poultry industry in Togo, an interuniversity project [Catholic University of Leuven (KUL) and University of Lome (UL)] as a model of poultry industry development was implemented. Specific objectives of the current project are to implement research and development activities on better conditions of incubation and adapted management practices focusing mainly on (1) Effect of early transferring of layer breeders hatching eggs on embryo parameters and hatchability, (2) Comparison of different chicken genotypes in Embryo Physiology, (3) Effects of heat conditioning at d 16 to 18 of incubation or during early broiler rearing on embryo physiology, post-hatch growth performance and heat tolerance, (4) Effect of low albumen quantity on chick embryo and post-hatch parameters, (5) Effects of In ovo-administration of L-carnitine on hatching events and juvenile performance of layer-type chick, (6) Interaction effects of mixing hatching eggs of differential embryo growth trajectory and incubator CO2concentration on embryo physiological parameters, (7) Effect of delayed feed access on production and blood parameters of layer-type chicks and (8) Induced moulting of layer chickens.
  A. Teteh , M. Gbeassor , E. Decuypere and K. Tona
  Protein sources diversification and antibiotic growth promoter ban have led to the use of plants. Through production improving, leaves such as Moringa oleifera leaves were often used to ameliorate broilers and layers growth. Attempt to improve egg production led us to undertake this study with 600 day-old ISA Brown chicks (layer-type) divided into three groups (M0, M1 and M2) of 200 birds each. They were reared up to 40 weeks. Daily egg and feed intake were collected to determine laying rate and conversion ratio. Weekly, 30 eggs per group were weighed and broken to determine egg components ratio. At 20 and 40 weeks, 40 birds per group were slaughtered to collect blood, ovarian grape and oviduct. So, total protein, glucose and triglycerides concentrations, ovarian grape weight, oviduct weight and follicles number were determined. Data collected showed higher egg production, heavier eggs and higher triglycerides concentration in M1 compared to M2. High level of triglycerides can be linked to oestrogens synthesis from sterols contained in Moringa oleifera leaves in M1 while high intake of oestrogen substances by hens of M2 reduces their production although antinutritive substances effect on them cannot be excluded.
  T. Bouassi , Y. Ameyapoh , V. Van Hamme , K. Anani , Y. Adjrah , E. Decuypere , M. Gbeassor and K. Tona
  Background: The ban of antibiotics use as growth factors since 2006 affects animal performance and economical viability of farms. Several alternatives including incorporation of organic acids in feed or drinking water in order to improve productivity were studied. Objective: The objective of this study is to mix ACIDAL with drinking water of hens in order to improve productivity. Methodology: The experiment was carried out with 360 ISA Brown hens (22-44 weeks of age), allocated to 3 groups (control, Aci 1 and Aci 2) of 120 birds each. The three groups received, respectively in drinking water 0, 1 and 2 mL of ACIDAL L–1. Prior to start, every 4 weeks and at the end of the treatments, samples of chicken droppings according to each group were collected and used to determine total Streptococcus and Escherichia coli and to check the presence of Salmonella. During treatments, amount of water consumption, feed intake, body weight, egg weight and egg component weights were recorded weekly. Results: Eggs produced were collected daily and every 2 weeks, the litter quality was assessed. Mixing of ACIDAL with drinking water of laying hens reduced significantly the number of total bacteria, eliminated completely Salmonella in the droppings, decreased feed intake and improved egg weights and body weight compared to control group witch litter was significantly wetter and more tendentiously crusty compared to those of treated groups. Conclusion: In opposite, there is no effect on water consumption, mortality rate, egg laying rate and ratios of albumen, yolk and shell.
  D. Nideou , O. N`nanle , A. Teteh , E. Decuypere , M. Gbeassor and K. Tona
  Background and Objective: A major challenge in broiler breeder management is the nutritional requirement and the effect of feed formulation on breeder performance. Metabolizable energy and crude protein levels are two important nutritional parameters for evaluating poultry feed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-protein and low-energy diets on the performance of Sasso breeders. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed with 120 Sasso breeders divided into 3 groups (control group, low-protein group and low-energy group) of 40 birds each. Feed intake, body weight, egg weight and egg component weights were recorded weekly. At 35 weeks of age, a total of 600 settable eggs were collected in 7 days and stored at 15°C before incubation. Prior to setting for incubation, eggs were numbered, weighed and assigned to 4 replications of 50 eggs each diet/treatment. Results: Results indicate that breeders of the control diet group exhibited increased body weight (p<0.05) with heavier eggs (p<0.05) and an increased ratio of albumen weight to egg weight (p<0.01) as compared with the groups with the low-energy diet and the low-protein diet (p<0.05). In addition, day-old chicks from eggs of the control group were heavier (p<0.05) than those from eggs of both the low-energy and low-protein diet groups. Conclusion: Low-protein and low-energy diets during the laying period negatively affect the feed intake and feed conversion ratio. These diets also affect the egg weight and ratios of albumen, yolk, shell and chick weight. No significant differences were observed regarding hatchability and blood serum concentration levels of total protein, triglycerides and glucose.
  K. Voemesse , A. Teteh , D. Nideou , O. N`nanle , M. Gbeassor , E. Decuypere and K. Tona
  Background and Objective: Medicinal plants are currently used as alternative to antibiotics growth promoters. However, their positive effect on livestock growth performance, particularly on poultry, depends on the rearing conditions and the birds’ lines. This study investigated the effect of different levels of Moringa oleifera leave meal (MOLM) on performance and serum biochemical parameters of egg-type chicken from one day old to 8 weeks of age. Methodology: A total of 450 days old chicken were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (M0, M1 and M3), 150 birds per treatment group and were respectively fed with diets containing 0, 1 and 3% of Moringa leaf. During experimental period, feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. At 5 weeks of age, 12 birds per group were slaughtered to collect blood, gizzard, pancreas, heart and liver. Blood serum concentrations in total protein, albumin, uric acid, calcium, magnesium and iron were also determined. Results: Results showed similarity between feed intake, liver relative weight while significant differences (p<0.05) between treated groups and the control one were observed on body weight, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and gizzard relative weight. In addition, total protein, albumin, calcium, magnesium and iron levels were significantly increased (p<0.05) in chickens fed MOLM as compared to control. The results also indicate that chickens of control diet group had higher blood uric acid level (p<0.05). However, no significant difference in phosphorus concentration was found between groups. Conclusion: During juvenile growth, MOLM did not affect feed intake, liver relative weight and phosphorus level. The leaves affect body weight, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and gizzard relative weight. Significantly differences were observed on total protein, albumin, calcium, iron and magnesium levels.
  A. Kolani , Y. Adjrah , M. Eklou-Lawson , A. Teteh and K. Tona
  Background and Objective: Difficulties in satisfying the energy requirements of birds with cereals, especially maize, have led researchers to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary palm oil on the production performance of laying hens. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary palm oil on the egg production performance and serum parameters of laying hens. Materials and Methods: One hundred eighty 55-week-old Isa Brown laying hens were used in a completely randomized study involving four treatments (groups). Birds in the four groups were fed for 14 weeks with diet 0, 1, 2 or 3. Diet 0 was the basal diet without palm oil, while diets 1, 2 and 3 contained 1, 2 and 3% palm oil obtained by a traditional procedure, respectively. Data were collected on feed intake, egg production, organ weight and biochemical parameters. Results: The results showed that feed intake decreased with an increase in dietary palm oil. Groups D1 (diet 1) and D2 (diet 2) showed high laying rates, low egg weights, low liver weights and a low feed conversion ratio, whereas group D3 (diet 3) had the heaviest eggs and the highest serum total protein concentration. These results might be related to the ability of palm oil to influence feed transit and to improve nutrient digestibility and absorption. Conclusion: Feed containing up to 2% palm oil had a beneficial effect on the egg production performance of laying hens.
  K. Attivi , K. Agboka , G.K. Mlaga , O.E. Oke , A. Teteh , O. Onagbesan and K. Tona
  Background and Objective: The scarcity and high cost of fish meal has led researchers to evaluate the use of unconventional protein sources as substitutes for fish meal in poultry feed. This study investigated the substitution of Black Soldier fly for fish meal in broiler diets. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 fourteen-day old broilers were assigned to five treatment groups: A0 (100% of fish meal and 0% of maggot meal), A25 (25% of fish meal and 75% of maggot meal), A50 (50% of fish meal and 50% of maggot meal), A75 (75% of fish meal and 25% of maggot meal) and A100 (0% of fish meal and 100% of maggot meal). Data were collected on feed intake, organ weights, biochemistry parameters and digestibility indices. Results: Birds in group A100 had the lowest feed intake and better feed conversion ratio. Gizzard weight of the birds in A0 and A25 was similar but significantly lower (p<0.05) than those in A50, A75 and A100. Intestinal length of birds in A50, A75 and A100 were significantly longer (p<0.05). No significant difference in serum total protein and cholesterol was recorded across the treatments whereas albumin concentration in the birds in group A100 was the highest (p<0.05). Triglycerides were in the following order: A0 = A25, = A50 A75 = A100. Uric acid concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05) in (A0). Conclusion: Black Soldier fly maggot meal improved broiler productive performance without any deleterious effect and can be considered as a suitable alternative for fish meal.
  D. Nideou , O. N`nanle , Y.A.E. Kouame , C. Chrysostome , M. Gbeassor , E. Decuypere and K. Tona
  Background and Objective: High incubation temperatures accelerate embryonic growth or increase embryonic mortality depending on incubation stage, duration of exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of high incubation temperature on layer chicken embryo. Materials and Methods: A total of 1200 hatching eggs were studied in two different experiments and divided into two groups, control and high temperature group. Eggs of control group were incubated at standard incubation temperature of 37.6°C. Eggs of high temperature groups were incubated at 38.6°C during the first 10 days for experiment 1 or 18 days for experiment 2. During incubation samples of eggs were used to determine the weights of remaining albumen, embryo and yolk sac. Also, hatching events and hatch were monitored every two hours between 19 and 21 day of incubation. Blood samples were collected at 18 day-old embryo, internal pipping stage and at hatch for tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine and corticosterone level determinations. Results: Results suggested that, the embryos incubated at high temperature during the first 10 days used albumen more rapidly with no effect on hatchability. On contrary, embryos incubated at high temperature during the first 18 days reduced significantly albumen utilization after days 13 of incubation with negative effect on hatchability (p<0.05). In addition, high incubation temperature decreased yolk sac weight compared to control groups (p<0.05). In experiment 1, the highest T3 and T4 levels were obtained at internal pipping stage. Conclusion: A temperature increased by 1°C of the standard during the 18 days of incubation is detrimental for embryo development and hatching performance.
  G.K. Mlaga , K. Agboka , K. Attivi , O. Oke , E. Osseyi , Y. Ameyapoh , A. Teteh , Y. Adjrah , O. Onagbesan and K. Tona
  Background and Objective: There has been a search for non-conventional feedstuffs such as maggot meal as a result of scarcity and high cost of fishmeal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the black soldier fly maggot meal as a protein source on meat quality of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to five treatment groups of varying dietary inclusion levels of fish and maggot meal; 100% fishmeal and 0% maggot meal (control group) (A0), 75% fishmeal: 25% maggot meal (A25), 50% fishmeal: 50% maggot meal (A50), 25% fishmeal: 75% maggot meal A(75) and 100% maggot meal and 0% fishmeal (A100). At the 57th day, 6 chickens per replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate the carcass yield and meat quality. Results: Results showed that there was a reduction of breast water loss in group A100 compared to the other batches (p<0.05). The maggot meal increased the yield and ultimate pH (pHu) of the breast of A100 group (p<0.05). In addition, meat protein levels were also higher in the treated groups than that of the control group (p<0.001). In contrast, thigh yield, abdominal fat and mineral contents were not affected by the dietary inclusion of maggot meal. Conclusion: Broilers fed 100% maggot meal obtained the best meat characteristics. This could be attributed to the high-quality protein contained in the Black Soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) maggot meal. It can be concluded that maggot meal is a non-conventional protein source which can be used as fish meal replacer in broiler diet.
  O. Ngueda Djeuta , K. Voemesse , A. Teteh , M. Gbeassor , E. Decuypere and K. Tona
  Background and Objective: The scarcity and seasonal fluctuation of conventional feedstuff srequire alternative sources in order to ensure optimum performance of poultry birds. This study investigated the effect of Manihot esculenta leaf meal (MELM) on blood parameters and productive performance of laying hens from 50-62 weeks of age. Materials and Methods: A total of two hundred Is a Brown layers of 50 weeks of age were assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 10 birds each. Treatment diets were: 0% MELM (ME0), 2.5% MELM (ME2.5), 5% MELM (ME5%) and 7.5% MELM (ME7.5). During the experimental period, feed intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio as well as egg quality parameters were recorded weekly. The blood samples were collected from 16 birds (4/replicate) at 61th weeks of age for the determination of total protein, albumin and uric acid. Results: Results showed that feed intake (FI) and egg production were higher (p<0.05) in the birds of ME5 and ME7.5 than those of the other treatment. The birds in ME5 and ME7.5 also had the lowest (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). Total proteins and albumin were significantly higher (p<0.05) in birds fed 5 and 7.5 % of MELM while layers in ME 7.5 group had the highest (p<0.05) uric acid concentration. Most external and internal egg quality parameters were not significantly affected except for yolk color score which was improved with increased levels of MELM. Conclusion: In conclusion, Manihot esculenta leaf meal (MELM) can be used up to 7.5% as feed ingredients in laying hens to improve performance.
  A. Teteh , G. Abbey , Y. Beblemegna , O.E. Oke , E. Decuypere , M. Gbeassor and K. Tona

Background and Objective: The use of antibiotics is associated with problems such as the presence of residues in eggs and meat and the development of bacterial resistance. These concerns have resulted in the search for phytochemical from plants such as Moringa oleifera leaf. The leaves of Moringa oleifera have been regularly incorporated into feed to improve poultry production but the profitability of this, in modern poultry production, has not been evaluated. This study, therefore, evaluated the financial implications of the use of Moringa oleifera leaves in poultry feed. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 day-old Isa brown chicks were assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of M0 (0% of Moringa oleifera leaves), M1 (1% of Moringa oleifera leaves) and M2 (2% of Moringa oleifera leaves) from day-old to 280 day of age. Production and financial data were subjected to financial analyses using feed conversion ratio, margin approach, return on investment and break-even yield methods. Results: The study showed that there was a better profitability in the birds fed with the diet containing 1% leaves having 11.04% more income and 14% return on investment than those of M0. This improved performance was associated to the better feed conversion ratio and high egg production of the birds fed diet containing 1% leaves when compared with those fed 2% Moringa leaves. Conclusion: It was concluded that the use of Moringa oleifera leaf as a prebiotic in a poultry diet improved production performance and profit margin of hens.

  Y.A.E. Kouame and K. Tona

Background and Objective: After hatching, day-old chicks usually have delay in feed access for 48-72 h before they are placed on farms. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of delayed access to feed on keets post-hatch performance, physiological and intestinal morphometric parameters. Materials and Methods: Four hundred day-old keets were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatments and 4 replicates with 50 birds per replicate. The treatments were: (1) Keets with immediate access to feed and (2) Keets with delay in feed access for 48h. Prior to feed access, the keets were weighed and reared for 11 weeks. Data were collected on feed intake, body weight. Also, blood samples were ollected at week 11 from guinea fowls for determination of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and total protein levels. Guinea fowls were later slaughtered and intestinal morphometry were determined. Results: From 3 weeks onward, body weights of guinea fowls with immediate access to feed were higher (p<0.05) than those with delayed access to feed. Also, the weight and length of intestine of birds with immediate access to feed was higher than those with delayed access to feed. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine of guinea fowl with immediate access to feed were higher (p<0.05) than thosewith delayed access to feed. Total cholesterol, total protein and glucose of the birds with delayed access to feed were lower (p<0.05) than those with immediate access to feed. Conclusion: Delay in feed access more than 48h adversely affected growth performance of guinea fowl.

  A.E. Soara , E. Talaki , G-K. Dayo and K. Tona

Objective: The present study aimed at carrying out the morpho-biometric characterization of indigenous guinea fowl populations. Materials and Methods: Data collection was conducted between March and July 2018 in two agroecological zones in northern Togo. The study was carried out on 738 adult guinea fowl. Each animal was described by direct observation. Body weight and measurements were recorded. Results: The results revealed twelve colours of the plumage with a dominance of Bonaparte (39.0%) and Pearl grey (27.1%) colours and a rarity of Cinnamon pied (0.7%), Isabelle (0.3%) and Coral blue (0.1%) colours. The plumage was mostly smooth (90.5%). The eyes were mostly brown (57.0%) but Albino guinea fowl predominantly had white colour (85.2%) for the eye. Regardless of the phenotype, the helmet was curved (73.2%) and mumps white-bluish colour (85.5%). In Atakora, the beak was brown (81.3%), the wattles were red-white (49.8%), the shanks were black-red (32.6%) and the toes were red (47.6% ) while in the Dry Savannah the beak was red (52.9%), the wattles were red-bluish (38.4%), the shanks were black-orange (12.3%) and the toes were grey (35.2%). For the beak length, drumstick length, body length and body weight, the Dry Savannah guinea fowl showed significantly (p<0.05) higher values than those of Atakora guinea fowl. Moreover, guinea fowl with Pearl grey phenotype (1.36±0.28 kg) were heavier (p<0.05) than the other phenotypes. Conclusion: Positive relationship could not be established between phenotype and biometric characteristics in this study. Further studies are required using molecular and zootechnical information to establish relationship between different phenotypes.

  C.C. Kpomasse , B. Sodjinou , K. Voemesse , F.M. Houndonougbo and K. TONA

Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of two diets varying in energy and protein (one energy-high-protein-low and one energy-low-protein-high) on performances of Sasso broilers under tropics when offered sequentially. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 Sasso broiler chickens of 3 week of age were assigned into 3 treatments with 5 replicates of 35 birds each. The treatments were: broiler chicken fed (1) Basal diet (A group: control), (2) High energy and low protein diet (E+P diet) in morning and low energy and high protein diet (EP+ diet) in the afternoon (B group) and (3) EP+ diet in morning and E+P diet in the afternoon (C group). At 11 week of age, 30 chickens per treatment were slaughtered to collect blood, abdominal fat, gizzard, liver, heart, kidney, carcass, thigh, breast and intestine. Ultimate pH (pHu) and blood serum concentrations in glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total protein, urea and creatinine were also assessed. Results: Results indicated that feed intake, water intake, body weight, body weight gain, mortality, feed conversion ratio and pHu were similar among treatment groups. However, intestinal length and carcass yield of chickens fed sequentially (B and C) were significantly higher (p<0.05) and their serum creatinine concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05)than those of control group. Abdominal fat, liver weight and serum triglycerides of chickens of B group were significantly lower (p<0.05) than those of A and C group. Conclusion: It was concluded that sequential feeding improved intestinal length, carcass yield weights and serum creatinine and triglycerides of Sasso chickens.

  D. Libanio , T. Bouassi , E.Y.A. Kouame , O.E. Oke , F.M. Houndonougbo , A.A.M.C. Chrysostome and K. Tona

Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Stabilized products of sorghum enriched with lactobacilli (SPSL) on growth performance, haematological parameters and ileal microflora of Guinea fowl. Materials and Methods: A total of 520 one day old guinea fowls with average body weight of 33.02g were assigned to 4 treatments with 5 replicates (26 birds/replicate). The 4 treatments were: (1) Only basal diet (T), (2) Basal diet supplemented with antibiotics in water (T+), (3) Basal diet supplemented with the SPSL at the dose of 1.5% (T1.5), (4) Basal diet supplemented with SPSL at the dose of 3% (T3). At 12 week of age, blood samples were collected from 40 birds per treatment for haematological analysis. The birds were also slaughtered and ileal contents were harvested for microbiological analysis. Results: The results showed that there were no significant differences in the feed intake, feed conversion ratio and body weights of the birds across the treatments. Weight and length of intestine, caeca length and abdominal fat of the birds in T3 were higher (p<0.05) than those of the other treatment groups. The lymphocyte in T1.5 group was higher than those of T group (p <0.05). Total coliforms bacteria was higher in the birds of T+ and T treatment groups than those of T1.5 and T3. The level of Escherichia coli was lower (p<0.05) in the birds of T3 group compared to other treatment groups. Total coliforms in T1.5 and T3 birds were lower than those of T and T+. Conclusion: It was concluded that the SPSL significantly improved the intestinal parameters and reduced the potential pathogen bacteria.

  E. Talaki , K.F.X. Dzogbema , Y. Adjrah and K. Tona

Background and Objective: Appropriate poultry development strategies based on sound knowledge of family poultry practices can benefit households substantially by contributing to food security, women’s empowerment and poverty reduction in developing countries. This study was conducted to obtain information on family poultry practices in Togo. Materials and Methods: This baseline study on family poultry production was carried out in the five regions of Togo. Semi-structured questionnaires were used by trained investigators to collect data through individual interviews in 1,468 households. Results: The results showed that the majority of men in Togo (65.48%) owned poultry and that agriculture is the predominant occupational activity of most (91.35%) poultry farmers. The leading purposes for keeping poultry species were for personal food consumption and income (39.37%). Birds were most often (87.10%) purchased to form the initial poultry flock. Body size was reported by 21.67% of respondents as the trait that most influenced the choice of purchase, followed by a combination of body size and plumage (23.16%). The poultry owned were mainly chickens (n = 50±7), followed by pigeons (n = 31±7) and Guinea fowl (n = 23±5). Cereals were the major feed constituents, particularly maize (95.09%), followed by millet (43.71%), leftovers (35.32%) and sorghum (34.49%). The main sources of water supply for poultry maintenance were wells (36.07%) and boreholes (32.97%). Disease (66.16%), theft (20.17%) and predation (11.54%) were the leading causes of poultry loss. The most common of these diseases were Newcastle disease, coccidiosis, smallpox, bronchitis, salmonellosis, vitamin deficiency and intestinal worms. Approximately 33.15% of respondents reported having provided veterinary care, whereas herbal treatments were used by 46.62% of respondents to prevent or treat diseases in poultry flocks. More than half (55.24%) of the respondents had access to extension services support and 81.38% reported being satisfied with the support provided. Conclusion: Poultry diseases, lack of information and training on management practices are the important constraints in the current status of family poultry production in Togo. The findings obtained from this study are important in determining the resources needed to improve family poultry farming in Togo.

  T. Bouassi , D. Libanio , M.D. Mesa , A. Gil , K. Tona and Y. Ameyapoh

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth performance, some haematological and serum immunological and biochemical parameters of laying hens supplemented with whey (LW) and ACIDAL®ML mixed in drinking water. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and fifty Isa Brown hens’ chicks were randomly assigned to five treatments and five replicates of 150 birds each. The birds were reared for 36 weeks. The treatments were administered in the drinking water at dosages: 250 mL L1 of LW (Lacto 25) and 500 mL L1 of LW (Lacto 50) and 1 mL L1 of ACIDAL®ML (Aci). A positive control group (T+) was treated with 500 mg L1 of Tétracolivit (antibiotic). The negative control group (T-) was offered drinking water only. During experimental period, feed intake, body weight, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality were recorded. At weeks 12, 24 and 36, blood samples were collected from 10 birds of each treatment group for determination of total proteins, albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, immunoglobulin (IgA and IgG) concentration and haematological parameters. Results: Supplementation of ACIDAL®ML and LW decreased feed intake and mortality leading to increased body weight gains and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR). Administration of LW and ACIDAL®ML increased red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, serum albumin and IgA values but decreased white blood cells (WBC), lymphocyte and serum IgG. Conclusion: LW and ACIDAL®ML supplementation in hens’ drinking water, improved growth performance and reduced mortality. Furthermore, LW and ACIDAL®ML improved hen’s immune status by decreasing serum IgG, WBC and lymphocytes while increasing serum IgA and albumin content.

  J. Glago , C.K.C. Tchekessi , K.J. Ekpo , C.C. Kpomassè , N.W. Chabi , A.K. Tete-Benissan , F.M. Houndonougbo , K. Tona and C.A.A.M. Chrysostome
  Background and Objective: The use of antibiotic in livestock production has led to the emergence of new strains of pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotics. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feed containing Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Enterococcus faecium obtained from fermented Tchoukoutou on the performances of local guinea fowl and the exotic guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). Materials and Methods: The birds were assigned to 3 experimental treatments, namely R1 group received a diet containing 3% fermented Tchoukoutou, R2 group fed basal diets and R3 group fed basal diet with an antibiotic (Alfaceryl). A total of 375 guinea-fowl of the local strain and the exotic strain was allotted to each group at the pre-experimental phase were allotted to each group which lasted for one week. Results: The results showed that supplementation of probiotic bacteria improved the production performance of local guinea fowl especially at the starter phase whereas the production performance of the exotic birds were not affected. Conclusion: It was concluded that the feed containing probiotic bacteria obtained from the fermented Tchoukoutou had a beneficial effect on the growth performance of local guinea fowl.
  Lawson-Evi Povi , A.E. Motto , K. Atchou , K. Tona , K. Eklu-Gadegbeku and K. Aklikokou
  Background and Objective: Pterocarpus erinaceus (Fabaceae), Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae) and Anogeissus leiocarpus (Combretaceae) are plants used in the treatment of diabetes many times. The present study was undertaken to observe the insulinomimetic activity of a different type of plants. Materials and Methods: The hypoglycemic effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from the stem bark of P. erinaceus and the roots of A. spinosus and A. leiocarpus was evaluated in ovo on 11 days-old chicken embryos and ex vivo on skeletal muscles isolated from rats. Results: All extracts reduced significantly the chicken embryos basal glycemia in the treated groups compared to the control group at the doses of 0.03 and 0.06 mg/100 μL. The extract of A. leiocarpus (0.5 and 1 mg mL1) increased (p<0.001 and p<0.0001) the absorption of glucose by the muscle in the presence and absence of insulin more than the extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus and Amaranthus spinosus. Conclusion: Hence, it was concluded that, the three extracts decreased the basal glycemia in ovo. Whereas the extract of A. leiocarpus has an effect, similar to an insulinomimetic effect.
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