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Articles by K. Strassburger
Total Records ( 5 ) for K. Strassburger
  W. Rathmann , K. Strassburger , M. Heier , R. Holle , B. Thorand , G. Giani and C. Meisinger
  Aims:To determine the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in an elderly population in Germany and its association with clinical and lifestyle factors.
Methods:Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT, World Health Organization criteria) were carried out in a random sample of 1353 subjects (age group 55–74 years; 62% response) in Augsburg (Southern Germany) (1999–2001). The cohort was re-investigated in 2006–2008. Of those individuals without diabetes (baseline), 887 (74%) participated in the follow-up.
Results:Ninety-three (10.5%) developed diabetes during the 7-year follow-up period {standardized incidence rates [95% confidence interval (CI)] per 1000 person-years: total 15.5; 12.6, 19.1; men 20.2; 15.6, 26.1; women 11.3; 7.9, 16.1}. In both sexes, those who developed diabetes were slightly older, were more obese, had a more adverse metabolic profile (higher glucose values, HbA1c, fasting insulin, uric acid, and triglycerides) and were more likely to have hypertension at baseline than were participants remaining free of diabetes (P < 0.05). On stepwise logistic regression, age, parental diabetes, body mass index, uric acid, current smoking, HbA1c and fasting and 2-h glucose (OGTT) were strong predictors of diabetes incidence. The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (odds ratio 8.8; 95% CI 5.0, 15.6) than in isolated impaired fasting glucose (4.7; 2.2, 10.0), although the difference did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusions:For the first time, we have estimated the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in an elderly German cohort and demonstrated that it is among the highest in Europe. The OGTT appears to be useful in identifying individuals with high Type 2 diabetes risk. Our results support a role of smoking in the progression to diabetes.
  C. Meisinger , K. Strassburger , M. Heier , B. Thorand , S. E. Baumeister , G. Giani and W. Rathmann
  Aims  Limited data are available for European populations regarding the prevalence of diabetes and disturbed glucose metabolism in younger individuals. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT) and combined IFG/IGT in a population-based sample (n = 1653) from Southern Germany aged 35-59 years.

Methods  Oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out in all non-diabetic participants of the KORA F4 Study (2006-2008). Diabetes, IGT and IFG were defined according to the 1999 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. The original IFG criteria (6.1-6.9 mmol/l) were used as recommended by the European Diabetes Epidemiology Group.

Results  The age-standardized prevalence was 2.2% for known diabetes, 2.0% for newly detected diabetes, 2.9% for i-IFG, 6.3% for i-IGT and 1.1% for combined IFG/IGT. About half of the cases with overt diabetes were undiagnosed in all age groups. The prevalence of i-IGT was approximately twice as high as that of i-IFG. The proportion of i-IGT varied between 3.2% (age group 35-44 years) and 11.8% (age group 55-59 years); the corresponding numbers for i-IFG were 1.1% and 5.9%. IFG/IGT was present in 1.2% of the total sample, and was most frequently found in the age group 55-59 years (2.4%). Overall, 16% of the study population had either diabetes or abnormalities of glucose metabolism.

Conclusions  The study reveals for the first time a high prevalence of impaired glucose regulation in the younger and middle-aged German population. The detection of disturbed glucose metabolism or diabetes needs to be improved.

  W. Rathmann , B. Kowall , M. Heier , C. Herder , R. Holle , B. Thorand , K. Strassburger , A. Peters , H.-E. Wichmann , G. Giani and C. Meisinger
  Background  The aim was to derive Type 2 diabetes prediction models for the older population and to check to what degree addition of 2-h glucose measurements (oral glucose tolerance test) and biomarkers improves the predictive power of risk scores which are based on non-biochemical as well as conventional clinical parameters.

Methods  Oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out in a population-based sample of 1353 subjects, aged 55-74 years (62% response) in Augsburg (Southern Germany) from 1999 to 2001. The cohort was reinvestigated in 2006-2008. Of those individuals without diabetes at baseline, 887 (74%) participated in the follow-up. Ninety-three (10.5%) validated diabetes cases occurred during the follow-up. In logistic regression analyses for model 1, variables were selected from personal characteristics and additional variables were selected from routinely measurable blood parameters (model 2) and from 2-h glucose, adiponectin, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (model 3).

Results  Age, sex, BMI, parental diabetes, smoking and hypertension were selected for model 1. Model 2 additionally included fasting glucose, HbA1c and uric acid. The same variables plus 2-h glucose were selected for model 3. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased from 0.763 (model 1) to 0.844 (model 2) and 0.886 (model 3) (P < 0.01). Biomarkers such as adiponectin and insulin did not improve the predictive abilities of models 2 and 3. Cross-validation and bootstrap-corrected model performance indicated high internal validity.

Conclusions  This longitudinal study in an older population provides models to predict the future risk of Type 2 diabetes. The OGTT, but not biomarkers, improved discrimination of incident diabetes.

  B. Nowotny , P. J. Nowotny , K. Strassburger and M. Roden
  Aims  Assessment of insulin sensitivity by dynamic metabolic tests such as the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp critically relies on the reproducible and fast measurement of blood glucose concentrations. Although various instruments have been developed over the last decades, little is known as to the accuracy and comparability. We therefore compared the best new instrument with the former gold standard instruments to measure glucose concentrations in metabolic tests.

Methods  Fasting blood samples of 15 diabetic and 10 healthy subjects were collected into sodium-fluoride tubes, spiked with glucose (0, 2.8, 6.9 and 11.1 mmol/l) and measured either as whole blood (range 3.3-26.3 mmol/l) or following centrifugation as plasma (range 3.9-32.0 mmol/l). Plasma samples were analyzed in the YSI-2300 STAT plus (YSI), EKF Biosen C-Line (EKF) and the reference method, Beckman Glucose analyzer-II (BMG), whole blood samples in EKF instruments with YSI as reference method.

Results  The average deviation of the EKF from the reference, BMG, was 3.0 ± 3.5% without any concentration-dependent variability. Glucose measurements by YSI were in good agreement with that by BMG (plasma) and EKF (plasma and whole blood) up to concentrations of 13.13 mmol/l (0.5 ± 3.7%), but deviation increased to −6.2 ± 3.8% at higher concentrations. Precision (n = 6) was ±2.2% (YSI), ±3.9% (EKF) and ±5.2% (BMG).

Conclusions  The EKF instrument is comparable regarding accuracy and precision to the reference method BMG and can be used in metabolic tests, while the YSI showed a systematic shift at higher glucose concentrations. Based on these results we decided to replace BMG with EKF instrument in metabolic tests.

  A. Icks , H. Claessen , K. Strassburger , R. Waldeyer , N. Chernyak , F. Julich , W. Rathmann , B. Thorand , C. Meisinger , C. Huth , I.-M. Rückert , M. Schunk , G. Giani and R. Holle
 

Aims

Patient time costs have been described to be substantial; however, data are highly limited. We estimated patient time costs attributable to outpatient and inpatient care in study participants with diagnosed diabetes, previously undetected diabetes, impaired glucose regulation and normal glucose tolerance.

Methods

Using data of the population-based KORA S4 study (55-74 years, random sample of n = 350), we identified participants' stage of glucose tolerance by oral glucose tolerance test. To estimate mean patient time costs per year (crude and standardized with respect to age and sex), we used data regarding time spent with ambulatory visits including travel and waiting time and with hospital stays (time valued at a 2011 net wage rate of €20.63/h). The observation period was 24 weeks and data were extrapolated to 1 year.

Results

Eighty-nine to 97% of participants in the four groups (diagnosed diabetes, undetected diabetes, impaired glucose regulation and normal glucose tolerance.) had at least one physician contact and 4-14% at least one hospital admission during the observation period. Patient time [h/year (95% CI)] was 102.0 (33.7-254.8), 53.8 (15.0-236.7), 59.3 (25.1-146.8) and 28.6 (21.1-43.7), respectively. Age-sex standardized patient time costs per year (95% CI) were €2447.1 (804.5-6143.6), €880.4 (259.1-3606.7), €1151.6 (454.6-2957.6) and €589.2 (435.8-904.8).

Conclusions

Patient time costs were substantial-even higher than medication costs in the same study population. They are higher in participants with diagnosed diabetes, but also in those with undetected diabetes and impaired glucose regulation compared with those with normal glucose tolerance. Research is needed in larger populations to receive more precise and certain estimates that can be used in health economic evaluation.

 
 
 
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