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Articles by K. Nakamura
Total Records ( 3 ) for K. Nakamura
  M. Sakurai , K. Miura , T. Takamura , M. Ishizaki , Y. Morikawa , K. Nakamura , K. Yoshita , T. Kido , Y. Naruse , S. Kaneko and H. Nakagawa
  Aims  This study investigated the relationship between waist circumference and the subsequent incidence of Type 2 diabetes and the association with insulin resistance and pancreatic B-cell function in relatively lean Japanese individuals.

Methods  The study participants were 3992 employees (2533 men and 1459 women, aged 35-55 years) of a metal-products factory in Japan. The incidence of diabetes was determined in annual medical examinations during an 8-year follow-up. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) according to the sex-specific quintile of waist circumference at baseline. Differences in baseline insulin resistance [homeostatis model assessment (HOMA)-IR] and pancreatic B-cell function (HOMA-B) were compared between participants who developed diabetes and those who did not.

Results  During the follow-up, 218 participants developed diabetes. Age- and sex-adjusted HRs across the quintiles of waist circumference were 1.78, 1.00 (reference), 1.59, 3.11 and 3.30, respectively (P for trend, < 0.0001). The HR for the lowest quintile was significantly higher than that for the second quintile. Among participants with waist circumference of the lowest quintile, HOMA-B was lower in those who developed diabetes than in those who did not [33.1 (24.1-45.0) vs. 54.3 (37.9-74.6) median (interquartile range), P < 0.0001], but HOMA-IR did not differ between these groups.

Conclusions  There was a J-shaped relationship between waist circumference and subsequent risk for Type 2 diabetes in relatively lean Japanese individuals; lower pancreatic B-cell function may also increase the risk of diabetes in very lean Japanese people.

  J. K Akada , H Aoki , Y Torigoe , T Kitagawa , H Kurazono , H Hoshida , J Nishikawa , S Terai , M Matsuzaki , T Hirayama , T Nakazawa , R Akada and K. Nakamura
  Junko K. Akada, Hiroki Aoki, Yuji Torigoe, Takao Kitagawa, Hisao Kurazono, Hisashi Hoshida, Jun Nishikawa, Shuji Terai, Masunori Matsuzaki, Toshiya Hirayama, Teruko Nakazawa, Rinji Akada, and Kazuyuki Nakamura

Helicobacter pylori, a common pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and cancer, has evolved to establish persistent infections in the human stomach. Epidemiological evidence suggests that H. pylori with both highly active vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), the major virulence factors, has an advantage in adapting to the host environment. However, the mechanistic relationship between VacA and CagA remains obscure. Here, we report that CagA interferes with eukaryotic endocytosis, as revealed by genome-wide screening in yeast. Moreover, CagA suppresses pinocytic endocytosis and the cytotoxicity of VacA in gastric epithelial cells without affecting clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Our data suggest that H. pylori secretes VacA to attack distant host cells while injecting CagA into the gastric epithelial cells to which the bacteria are directly attached, thereby protecting these attached host cells from the cytotoxicity of VacA and creating a local ecological niche. This mechanism might allow H. pylori to balance damage to one population of host cells with the preservation of another, allowing for persistent infection.

  T. Kurita , K. Nakamura , M. Tabuchi , M. Orita , K. Ooshima and H. Higashino
  The details of pharmacological mechanisms of Gorei-san, a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, remains to be clarified, although it has been used for diuretic and hydrostatic purposes. From these circumstances, the effects of this medicine on the expressions of aquaporin (AQP) 1, 2, 3, 4 and vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) mRNAs were investigated in relation to diuresis and water balance regulation in the kidney and brain. Gorei-san extract decocted with hot water was given to rats loaded with 50 mL kg-1 volume of physiological saline and AQP1, 2, 3, 4 and V2R mRNAs were measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cortex and the medulla of kidney and the forebrain. A low dose of Gorei-san extract (100 mg kg-1) led to an increase in urine excretion and lower AQP3 mRNA expression in the cortex as well as lower expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNAs in the medulla of kidney, whereas no change in V2R mRNA expression was observed. AQP1 mRNA expression decreased in the forebrain of rats loaded with an excess volume of physiological saline compared with rats not loaded with excess saline and given no agent. A low dose of Gorei-san extract increased urine excretion volume, probably due to the downregulation of AQP3 mRNA in the cortex and downregulation of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNAs in the medulla of the kidney, in which changes were not related to V2R mRNA expression. An excess volume of physiological saline given to rats caused an inhibition of AQP1 mRNA expression in the forebrain, which probably functioned to maintain the water balance in a hyper-hydrous state.
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