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Articles by K. M. Macleod
Total Records ( 2 ) for K. M. Macleod
  G. Spyer , K. M. Macleod , M. Shepherd , S. Ellard and A. T. Hattersley
  Aim  To assess determinants of fetal growth in the offspring of pregnant women with hyperglycaemia due to a heterozygous glucokinase (GCK) gene mutation.

Methods  Details of gestational age at delivery, fetal birth weight and maternal antenatal treatment were collected from patients and retrospective case note review of 82 offspring born to 42 women with GCK gene mutations and 31 offspring born to 13 unaffected normoglycaemic women with an affected partner. Fetal genotype was determined using direct sequencing from either a mouth swab or a blood sample.

Results  In mothers with GCK mutations, non-mutation-carrying offspring were heavier than mutation-carrying offspring (corrected birth weight 3.9 ± 0.6 vs. 3.2 ± 0.8 kg; P < 0.001) and more likely to be macrosomic (> 4.0 kg; 39% vs. 7%, P = 0.001). There was no difference in corrected birth weight between offspring of insulin- and diet-treated women (3.7 ± 0.7 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6 kg; P = 0.1), although insulin-treated mothers delivered earlier (37.5 ± 1.7 vs. 38.9 ± 2.3 weeks; P < 0.001) due to increased obstetric intervention.

Conclusions  Offspring of women with GCK mutations are at increased risk of macrosomia and its obstetric consequences. Fetal birth weight is predominantly altered by fetal genotype and not treatment of maternal hyperglycaemia with insulin. This probably reflects the large effect of a fetal GCK mutation on fetal insulin secretion and the difficulty in reducing the regulated maternal glycaemia caused by a glucose sensing defect in people with GCK mutations.

  P. Choudhary , K. Lonnen , C. J. Emery , I. A. MacDonald , K. M. MacLeod , S. A. Amiel and S. R. Heller
  Aims  Patients with diabetes rely on symptoms to identify hypoglycaemia. Previous data suggest patients with Type 2 diabetes develop greater symptomatic and hormonal responses to hypoglycaemia at higher glucose concentrations than non-diabetic controls and these responses are lowered by insulin treatment. It is unclear if this is as a result of insulin therapy itself or improved glucose control. We compared physiological responses to hypoglycaemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes patients treated with sulphonylureas (SUs) or insulin (INS) with non-diabetic controls (CON).

Methods  Stepped hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemic clamps were performed on 20 subjects with Type 2 diabetes, 10 SU-treated and 10 treated with twice-daily premixed insulin, and 10 age- and weight-matched non-diabetic controls. Diabetic subjects were matched for diabetes duration, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and hypoglycaemia experience. We measured symptoms, counterregulatory hormones and cognitive function at glucose plateaux of 5, 4, 3.5, 3 and 2.5 mmol/l.

Results  Symptomatic responses to hypoglycaemia occurred at higher blood glucose concentrations in SU-treated than INS-treated patients [3.5 (0.4) vs. 2.6 (0.5) mmol/l SU vs. INS; P = 0.001] or controls [SU vs. CON 3.5 (0.4) vs. 3.0 (0.6) mmol/l; P = 0.05]. They also had a greater increase in symptom scores at hypoglycaemia [13.6 (11.3) vs. 3.6 (6.1) vs. 5.1 (4.3) SU vs. INS vs. CON; P = 0.017]. There were no significant differences in counterregulatory hormone responses or impairment of cognitive function among groups.

Conclusions  Sulphonylurea-treated subjects are more symptomatic of hypoglycaemia at a higher glucose level than insulin-treated subjects. This may protect them from severe hypoglycaemia but hinder attainment of glycaemic goals.

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