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Articles by K. Liu
Total Records ( 4 ) for K. Liu
  A digestibility trial was conducted to elucidate potential differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines and varieties as a first step in defining their potential for use in aquafeeds. A diverse group of six barley lines having six combinations of selected attributes, normal versus low phytic acid, normal versus waxy, and hulled versus hull-less, were chosen for evaluation along with a waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soft white wheat. The experimental diets were manufactured by cooking extrusion and consisted of a 70% reference diet that was formulated to contain a minimal level of phosphorus and 30% test ingredient. Phosphorus availability ranged from 17 to 78% and was influenced by starch type in wheat. Apparent protein digestibility ranged from 53 to 125% and differences were observed between wheat varieties based on starch type. Apparent energy digestibility ranged from 32 to 63%, with waxy barley varieties having higher energy digestibility coefficients than normal starch varieties. Waxy starch varieties had higher starch digestibility in both barley and wheat because of the greater digestibility of amylopectin than amylose. In summary, the higher energy digestibility of waxy barley lines suggests that these varieties warrant further attention as feed ingredients for rainbow trout.
  C. C Huang , M Fornage , D. M Lloyd Jones , G. S Wei , E Boerwinkle and K. Liu

Background— Mutations of PCSK9 are associated cross-sectionally with plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but little is known about their longitudinal association with LDL-C levels from young adulthood to middle age.

Methods and Results— We investigated the associations of 6 PCSK9 variants with LDL-C over 20 years in 1750 blacks and 1828 whites from the Coronary Artery Risk Development In Young Adults study. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess longitudinal differences in LDL-C levels between genotype categories. For blacks, LDL-C levels at age 18 were significantly lower (P<0.001) among those with 3 genetic variants (L253F, C679X, and Y142X; 81.5 mg/dL) and A443T (95.5 mg/dL) compared with noncarriers (109.6 mg/dL). The difference in LDL-C levels from noncarriers tended to widen for those with the 3 variants only, by 0.24 mg/dL per year of age (P=0.14). For whites with the R46L variant, compared with noncarriers, LDL-C levels at age 18 were significantly lower (84.4 mg/dL versus 100.9 mg/dL; P<0.001), and the increase in LDL-C with age was similar to noncarriers. The 3 genetic variants and the A443T variant in black men were associated with lower carotid intima-media thickness and lower prevalence of coronary calcification measured at ages 38 to 50.

Conclusions— Our results suggest that participants with several genetic variants of PCSK9 have persistently lower serum LDL-C levels than noncarriers from ages 18 to 50. Such long-term reduction in LDL-C levels is associated with reduced subclinical atherosclerosis burden in black men.

  O. L. Klein , T. Okwuosa , C. Chan , P. Schreiner , A. M. Kanaya , K. Liu and D. Green


To examine the association between changes in procoagulants (fibrinogen factors VII and VIII and von Willebrand factor) and the risk of insulin resistance.


Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, we followed 2398 black and white adults without diabetes, aged 25-37 years at year 7, to year 20. Levels of fibrinogen factors VII and VIII and von Willebrand factor were divided in tertiles (low/middle/high) at years 7 and 20 and four groups reflecting changes were defined: ‘low’ (low at years 7 and 20), ‘stable’ (low/middle at years 7 and 20, but not both low at years 7 and 20), ‘high’ (high at year 7 and low/middle at year 20; or low/middle at year 7 and high at year 20) and ‘highest' (high at years 7 and 20). Linear regression models were used to evaluate 13-year changes (year 20-year 7) in fibrinogen level and factors VII, VIII and von Willebrand change groups in relation to insulin resistance measures.


Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (year 20) and changes in log homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (year 20-year 7) were significantly associated with the 13-year increase in fibrinogen (P < 0.001). Compared with participants in the low group, those in the high group had significantly higher levels of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (year 20) and changes in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (year 20-year 7) for fibrinogen factor VII and von Willebrand factor (P < 0.017). No significant associations were observed between fibrinogen VIII and insulin resistance measures.


An increase in fibrinogen level and persistently high levels of factor VII and von Willebrand factor are significantly associated with increased risk of insulin resistance. These findings provide new insight into the mechanisms to explain the heightened risk for thrombosis in adults with insulin resistance/diabetes.

  D Adhikari , G Flohr , N Gorre , Y Shen , H Yang , E Lundin , Z Lan , M. J Gambello and K. Liu

To maintain the length of reproductive life in a woman, it is essential that most of her ovarian primordial follicles are maintained in a quiescent state to provide a continuous supply of oocytes. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control the quiescence and activation of primordial follicles is still in its infancy. In this study, we provide some genetic evidence to show that the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2), which negatively regulates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), functions in oocytes to maintain the dormancy of primordial follicles. In mutant mice lacking the Tsc2 gene in oocytes, the pool of primordial follicles is activated prematurely due to elevated mTORC1 activity in oocytes. This results in depletion of follicles in early adulthood, causing premature ovarian failure (POF). Our results suggest that the Tsc1–Tsc2 complex mediated suppression of mTORC1 activity is indispensable for maintenance of the dormancy of primordial follicles, thus preserving the follicular pool, and that mTORC1 activity in oocytes promotes follicular activation. Our results also indicate that deregulation of Tsc/mTOR signaling in oocytes may cause pathological conditions of the ovary such as infertility and POF.

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