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Articles by K. Koike
Total Records ( 2 ) for K. Koike
  Y Nakai , H Isayama , T Sasaki , N Sasahira , H Kogure , K Hirano , T Tsujino , H Ijichi , K Tateishi , M Tada , M Omata and K. Koike

We investigated the impact of S-1 on the prognosis of patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer.


A total of 108 patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer were divided by the time of S-1 introduction in our institution: 47 patients who experienced progressive disease before February 2005 (pre-S-1 group) and 61 patients showed progressive disease after February 2005 (post-S-1 group). Introduction rates of second-line chemotherapy and survival were compared. Prognostic factors for residual survival were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model.


Introduction rates of second-line chemotherapy were 12.8% in the pre-S-1 group and 45.9% in the post-S-1 group. Second-line chemotherapy was administered to 34 patients: 29 using S-1, 4 using 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiation and 1 using 5-fluorouracil. The objective response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival for second-line chemotherapy with S-1 were17.2%, 2.5 and 7.7 months, respectively. By the introduction of S-1 in our institution, residual survival was prolonged from 3.1 months in the pre-S-1 group to 6.7 months in the post-S-1 group (P < 0.001). Overall survival from the initiation of gemcitabine was 8.8 months in the pre-S-1 group and 11.3 months in the post-S-1 group (P = 0.013). Multivariate analysis identified the post-S-1 group (hazard ratio, 0.43; P = 0.001), gender, performance status, liver metastasis, and lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein levels at progressive disease for gemcitabine to be prognostic factors for residual survival.


The introduction of S-1 might improve the prognosis of patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer.

  T Kohashi , M Konoto and K. Koike

We have developed spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) with a 5-nm resolution. The secondary electron optics is very important, as it needs to transfer a sufficient number of secondary electrons to the spin polarimeter, due to the low efficiency of the polarimeter. The optics was designed using a three-dimensional (3D) simulation program of the secondary electron trajectories, and it achieves highly efficient collection and transport of the secondary electrons even though the distance between the sample and the objective lens exit of the electron gun remains short. Moreover, the designed optics enables us to obtain clear SEM images in the spin SEM measurement and to precisely adjust the probe beam shape. These functions lead to images with high spatial resolution and sufficient signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios. This optics has been installed in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) spin SEM chamber with a Schottky-type electron gun for the probe electron beam. We observed recorded bits on a perpendicular magnetic recording medium and visualized small irregularities in the bit shapes around the track edges and bit boundaries. The high resolution of 5 nm was demonstrated by observing the smallest domain composed by a single grain in the recording medium.

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