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Articles by K. Kawai
Total Records ( 3 ) for K. Kawai
  H. Yokoyama , M. Oishi , K. Kawai and H. Sone
  Aims  We investigated whether a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence, independent of the effect of microalbuminuria in patients with diabetes.

Methods  In a multicentre, large-scale cohort including 3002 Japanese patients with Type 2 diabetes without macroalbuminuria, the relationship of a reduced eGFR and microalbuminuria with CVD was investigated.

Results  Of those patients, 4.8% had a reduced eGFR and microalbuminuria, 12.7% had a reduced eGFR without microalbuminuria and 18.7% had microalbuminuria but normal eGFR. A reduced eGFR and microalbuminuria were each associated with a doubling of the prevalence of CVD. Compared with patients with no microalbuminuria/normal eGFR [odds ratio (OR) 1.0], the OR for CVD was significantly higher in those with a reduced eGFR without microalbuminuria (OR 1.97) and similarly higher in those with microalbuminuria without a reduced eGFR (OR 1.85). The OR was highest in those with both a reduced eGFR and microalbuminuria (OR 3.97, 95% confidence interval 2.55-6.20). The OR for CVD remained significant after adjustments for age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, smoking, body mass index, glycated haemoglobin and the duration of diabetes, and remained significant if the cut-off point for microalbuminuria was set at the median albumin : creatinine ratio (13.7 mg/g creatinine). In patients without microalbuminuria, a reduced eGFR was associated with CVD only in the older and male groups.

Conclusion  A reduced eGFR and the presence of microalbuminuria were each associated with a near doubling of the prevalence of CVD, independently of traditional CVD risk factors and glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  H. Yokoyama , M. Matsushima , K. Kawai , K. Hirao , M. Oishi , H. Sugimoto , H. Takeda , M. Minami , M. Kobayashi and H. Sone
  Aims  To investigate whether a reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease in Type 2 diabetes can be achieved in a newly recruited cohort following the recently advanced concept of multifactorial treatment and followed in primary care settings as compared with earlier cohorts.

Methods  A prospective study was performed in primary care settings at multiple clinics nationwide in the Japan Diabetes Clinical Data Management (JDDM) study group. Subjects were 2984 patients with Type 2 diabetes without prevalent cardiovascular disease. The main outcome measure was the first event of non-fatal or fatal coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke or peripheral artery disease, and the incidence was compared with other representative cohorts.

Results  There were 90 cardiovascular events over 10 827 person-years of follow-up with a dropout rate of 6%. The incidences (per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval) of composite, coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke and peripheral artery disease in the JDDM study were 8.3 (6.6-10.0), 4.4 (3.2-5.6), 3.1 (2.1-4.2), and 0.7 (0.2-1.2), respectively. Each incidence was lowest in the JDDM study compared with other cohorts (P < 0.01 vs. each cohort). In the JDDM study, significant variables predictive of the occurrence of a cardiovascular event were age, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, HDL cholesterol and urinary albumin.

Conclusion  The novel finding of low cardiovascular disease occurrence in this study may be conferred by the feasibility at primary care settings for providing patients with Type 2 diabetes with favourable control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids, coupled with unique ethnicity/country factors.

  M.M. Hossain , K. Kawai and S. Oshima
  Japanese eel Anguilla japonica were immunized with inactivated Edwardsiella tarda bacterin preparations {formalin-killed cells, FKC (0.4%), formalin with heat-killed cells, FHKC (0.1% and 70°C for 10 min), heat-killed cells, HKC (70°C for 15 min), potassium chloride-killed cells, KKC (0.6%), tannic acid-killed cells, TKC (0.9%), citric acid-killed cells, CAKC (0.9%), pressure-killed cells, PKC (600 psi for 5 min) and electric current-killed cells, ECKC (100 mA at 12 v DC for 5 sec) via intraperitoneal injection in order to develop adequate inactivating method. Immune parameters in the immunized eel were measured to compare responses to different bacterins. Generally, eel rose agglutinating antibody titer in the serum within 2 week and the maximum titer occurred at 6 weeks post immunization. Elevated and significantly higher titer was produced with the PKC of E. tarda than other bacterin preparations. An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), to determine specific anti-E. tarda antibody in the serum, also showed significantly higher antibody titer with PKC than the other antigen preparations. Bacteriostatic assay with serum and live E. tarda indicated significantly higher activity in the PKC-immunized fish. Immunization with PKC also showed the increased level of phagocytosis. PKC-inactivated vaccine at an immunization dose of 106 cells/fish induced high protection against experimental infection. Coincident with higher immune parameters and protection in the fish immunized with the PKC bacterin strongly suggested that pressure-killing is an effective inactivating method to develop an effective vaccine against edwardsiellosis.
 
 
 
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