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Articles by K. Karthik
Total Records ( 17 ) for K. Karthik
  K. Dhama , R.V.S. Pawaiya , K. Karthik , S. Chakraborty , R. Tiwari and A.K. Verma
  Equine Encephalosis (EE) is an arthropod borne febrile non contagious disease of equines. The causative virus, Equine encephalosis virus (EEV), has several serotypes (EEV1-EEV7) and the virus has been reported from southern Africa including Kenya, Botswana and South Africa. EEV was first isolated in 1967 from horses in the Republic of South Africa. Like the African horse sickness virus (AHSV) EEV is also endemic in southern Africa. In most of the country, EE virus in comparison to AHSV has a higher transmission rate. Two species in the Culicoides imicola species complex, C. imicola (senso stricto) and C. bolitinos are known to transmit EEV. Zebra and elephants can act as maintenance host of the virus, making the elimination of the virus difficult. Outbreaks of EEV infection is reported to be associated with equine foetus abortion during the first 5-6 months of gestation. 32P-labelled genomic probes of EEV are used for detection of viral Ribonucleic Acid (RNA). Sero-epidemiological tools for the detection of antibodies against EEV include Serum Neutralization Test (SNT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A novel real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay has also been developed for the detection of EEV by targeting the gene Viral Protein (VP)-7. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for this virus. Supportive treatment can only be provided. Management of horses in the stable is the key to control the spread of EEV in equines along with follow up of good biosecurity measures. The present review deals with all these aspects of the infection caused by this virus to enrich knowledge of researchers and equine/stud farm owners and the industry.
  K. Karthik , R. Rathore , P. Thomas , A. Elamurugan , T.R. Arun and K. Dhama
  Brucella abortus, one of the major pathogen causing abortions in cattle worldwide and a zoonotic agent, need to be detected earlier in order to prevent its spread among animals. The present study aimed at to know the prevalence of B. abortus in cattle population of three states (Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Tamil Nadu) of India by serological (Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT)) and molecular (polymerase chain reaction) detection in sera samples and whole blood (n = 370), respectively. Out of a total of 370 sera samples, 61 (16.49%) were positive by RBPT and 59 (15.94%) by STAT. Screening of the whole blood samples by genus specific bcsp31 gene based PCR as well as species specific IS711 gene based PCR revealed that 56 (15.13%) samples were positive for brucellosis. None of the serologically negative sample showed positivity by PCR; however few positive samples were tested negative by PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR compared with RBPT was 100 and 92.4% while with STAT these were 100 and 95.16%, respectively. Results are promising that whole blood can be used for studying the molecular epidemiology of B. abortus in cattle and particularly detecting the active phase of infection and PCR can be well adopted as a valuable test for mass screening of animals for this purpose. The present study adds to the prevalence data available regarding to B. abortus infection in cattle population and highlights the usefulness and advantages of molecular tool of PCR over serological tests.
  K. Dhama , R.P. Singh , K. Karthik , S. Chakraborty , R. Tiwari , M.Y. Wani and J. Mohan
  Spallanzani’s thought of Artificial Insemination (AI) has revolutionized the animal husbandry field, both in developing and developed countries, by improving the genetic potential of livestock and poultry; minimizing the managemental costs and holding the service of genetically superior males even after their death. AI in domesticated birds especially in turkey shows promising results unlike other domestic and wild animals. The advantages of AI are many which support the wide adaptation of this technique in the poultry industry to augment its growth. Making AI as an integral part of captive breeding programme for non-domesticated birds would facilitate the process of saving various endangered species of wild birds. However, there are various problems involved in case of birds which need to be addressed before implementing AI. Apart from these, AI also poses a risk of possible transmission of various infectious pathogens/diseases of poultry through semen or its contamination or during the process of insemination. Hence, careful and regular screening and monitoring of poultry will help to check the spread of such diseases. Novel methods are adopted to prevent the colonization of contaminant microbes in stored semen thereby minimizing the pathogen transfer. The recent advances in biotechnology and molecular biology need to be explored fully for early and rapid diagnosis of poultry diseases. This would help in formulating appropriate disease prevention and control strategies and thus safeguard poultry health and production. This review describes the salient facts about AI practices in poultry and possible transmission of infectious pathogens during insemination along with suitable prevention and control strategies to be adapted.
  P. Thomas , T.R. Arun , K. Karthik , P.V. Berin , M. Asok Kumar , Neetu Singh , J. Usharani , M. Palanivelu , S.K. Gupta , K. Dhama and K.N. Viswas
  Necrotic enteritis, caused by Clostridium perfringens, is an important bacterial disease of poultry. A suspected case of necrotic enteritis was presented for necropsy from an Indian Kadaknath Fowl flock showing diarrhea and progressive debility. Gross examination revealed necrotic to ulcerative lesions in intestine. The organism was isolated from the intestinal contents, tissue and liver under anerobic conditions. The cultural characteristics and Gram staining were suggestive of C. perfringens. The sequencing of 16s rRNA gene confirmed the isolate as C. perfringens and which was well differentiated from other clostridia associated with avian intestinal tract. This study demonstrates that 16s rRNA gene sequencing can provide rapid and confirmatory identification of C. perfringens. Further, Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (mPCR) was performed for toxinotyping and isolate was found to be positive for α toxin (cpa) and β2 toxin (cpb2), a feature of C. perfringens type A isolates. As some recent studies have highlighted the involvement of NetB toxin in pathogenesis, therefore, PCR was carried out to find the presence of this toxin, the isolate was found to be negative for netB gene. This study emphasizes the molecular characterization and toxinotyping as a rapid tool for detection of C. perfringens from suspected necrotic enteritis cases. Very few reports regarding molecular characterization are available from India, hence it adds to the available data on this important poultry pathogen. Further investigations are required to understand the exact role of NetB toxin in pathogenesis as various studies including the current one reports NetB negative strains involved in necrotic enteritis.
  M. Gopi , R. Dhinesh Kumar , G. Elaiyaraja , K. Karthik , H.V. Manjunatha Char , K. Gautham , R. Jaydip and M.R. Purushothaman
  The essentiality of nutrients keeps on changing with the advancement in nutritional research and genetic gain. The genetic gain especially in poultry sector is very high which results in increase in nutrient requirement of both the essential and non-essential nutrients. For the rapid growth the requirement of essential nutrients reaches many folds which are in direct relation with the performance, but the requirement for non-essential nutrients is an indirect one. Most of the dispensable amino acids, vitamin C, carnitine, etc. which are being synthesized endogenously are now a days unable to meet the birds requirements that warrants the dietary supply. Another important nutrient is coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) which endogenously synthesized is now gaining much attention as a supplement for fast growing broilers. The CoQ10 can be termed as multi-functionary as each and every cell in the body needs this but quantity is being high for very active organs like heart, lungs, liver, kidney, etc. They are essential for cellular oxidative phosphorylation and regenerative antioxidant. The supplementation of CoQ10 improved the feed efficiency with reducing the electron leaks from mitochondria and increases total antioxidant capacity. For this property, CoQ10 is widely used in human medicine especially persons suffering from cardiac, neurological disorder, hypercholesterolemic condition and also even in cancer. The CoQ10 in poultry draws first attention when it is found to reducing the ascites mortality in marketable broilers. Thereafter, the advantages of CoQ10 is started to exploit with much attention to ascites, feed efficiency, cholesterol lowering effect nutraceutical and nutrigenomic property both in poultry and swine industry.
  Rakesh Kumar , Shailesh Kumar Patel , B.V. Rami Reddy , Mukesh Bhatt , K. Karthik , Ravi Kumar Gandham , Yashpal Singh Malik and Kuldeep Dhama
  The normal cell has its own homeostatic mechanism. A slight deviation in this mechanism leads firstly to an adaptive response in the form of hypertrophy, atrophy etc. But sometimes when adaptive response exceeds a limit also culminates to cell injury which ultimately leads to cell death. Irreversible form of cell injury leads to cell death in the form of necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy and by other alternative ways of necroptosis, anoikis, entosis and cornification. Necrosis and apoptosis are main mechanisms of cell death in mammalian cells. Necrosis is accidental, uncontrolled and un-programmed cell death which leads to cellular swelling, pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, disruption of cell membrane and inflammation. Apoptosis is a programmed and energy dependent pathophysiological phenomenon leading to cellular shrinkage but no cell membrane rupture and no inflammatory response. Apoptosis can be mediated by extrinsic, intrinsic and perforin/granzyme pathways, leading to activation of execution caspases and finally protein cleavage, cross linking and DNA-fragmentation. Extrinsic pathway involve ligand (FasL, TNFα) and receptors (FasR, TNFR) interaction which bind to adapter proteins Fas Associated Death Domain (FADD) and TNFα Receptor Associated Death Domain (TRADD) with activation of initiator caspases-8. Intrinsic pathway involves cytochrome c release along with pro-apoptotic proteins and inhibits anti-apoptotic proteins, leads to cytochrome c interaction with Apaf-1, thus activation of pro-caspase-9. Overall, cell death have clarified many aspects of this fundamental process and brought to the attention of scientists its role in a large number of different diseases. The present review describes apoptosis and other alternate mechanisms of cell death with biomedical and veterinary perspectives.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Mani Saminathan , Amit Kumar , K. Karthik , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amarpal , Shoor Vir Singh and Anu Rahal
  Owing to rising incidences of antimicrobial resistance against various chemotherapeutic and antimicrobial agents, the treatment of bacterial infections requires special consideration that may otherwise lead to grave prognosis. Simultaneously, evolution of many a Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacterial strains have further aggravated the present situation. In this scenario, scrutinizing for some alternative yet effective antibacterial therapeutics like herbs, nutritional immunomodulators, bacteriophages, avian egge antibodies and others have become need of the day. Herbs have been a valuable source of medication in virtually all cultures and societies worldwide due to their important antimicrobial principles and phytoconstituents and wider therapeutic potentials. As various extracts of herbs and medicinal plants are being reported with antibacterial activities, much effort should be made in their identification, studying biologically active ingredients, efficacy and potency testing and scientific validation for their significant and practical multi-beneficial uses. The present review elaborates the potential role and applications of several herbs in treating bacterial infections and various types of bacterial diseases for safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals. It highlights the salient beneficial applications of traditional herbs and novel phytomedicines, from ancient periods to modern usages. Due emphasis has been given regarding scientific approaches to be followed and future perspectives with a vision to counter the emerging antimicrobial resistance. The review will certainly promote and popularize herbs as alternatives to conventional antimicrobials, particularly in the event of emerging MDR bacterial infections. Global usages of herbs as alternative and complementary medicines to various antimicrobials would lead not only to safeguard health issues and obtain optimum production from animals but will also ensure the public health issues including of food safety concerns viz., antibiotic residual effects in animal products (milk, meat) and zoonotic threats.
  K. Dhama , M. Kesavan , K. Karthik , Amarpal , R. Tiwari , Lakshmi T. Sunkara and R.K. Singh
  Neuroimmunomodulation involves interactions among nervous, endocrine and immune systems. An integrated function is performed by nervous and immune systems that is responsible for preservation of integrity and homeostasis of the organism. Though Central Nervous System (CNS) has a limited repertoire for its own protection, it has the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) and the capacity to engage peripheral immune system to eliminate infections and xenobiotics. Neural cells involved in the process of providing neural immunity include: Glial cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Besides working as sentinels to get rid of pathogens in the process of neurodevelopment, both central as well as peripheral immune cells actively participate helping in cognitive brain functions. Neurogenesis process may also be regulated by adaptive immune cells peripherally. Recently there is a discovery of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway wherein vagal nerve has shown anti-inflammatory role in endotoxemia and shock. Hormones viz., nor-epinephrine, epinephrine and glucocorticoids prepare immune system to combat infections and enhance distribution and trafficking of immune cells by several ways. This review focuses on neurobiology, neuro-immune cross talk, neuroimmunoregulation, stress and neuroimmunomodulation which will be beneficial for researchers, professionals and academicians. Topics like neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles of immune reactions (which are innate in nature) in the process of aging are highly debated among researchers. In this review, topics like neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, role of vitamins, minerals, herbs and drugs and volatile oils in the process of neuroimmunomodulation and particularly countering various diseases, disorders, infections, stress and aging have been discussed vividly to enhance and update the knowledge of the scientific community regarding this particular topic ‘Neuroimmunomodulation’.
  V. Laudadio , V. Lorusso , N.M.B. Lastella , K. Dhama , K. Karthik , R. Tiwari , Gazi Mahabubul Alam and V. Tufarelli
  A significant focus in the nutrition era has been oriented to nutraceutical and functional foods. The health promoting potential of such provisions is ascribed to nutrition and these constituents have useful properties playing important role for egg producers. The biological and nutraceutical importance of egg is often due to the active compounds. It holds various bioactive compounds having significant nutraceutical properties like antioxidant, antiallergenic, antiartherogenic, antimicrobial and cardioprotective. Antioxidants are important against many disorders like hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular diseases. The growing attention on natural antioxidants has promoted researches in investigating new antioxidant sources having profitable prospective. Confirmation for the effectiveness of the enrichment of eggs with bioactive compounds by inclusion of plant-derived materials in the diet of egg-producing poultry has been reviewed. This review study aims to discuss the antioxidant potential of natural substances used to enrich the eggs and highlight the importance of eggs as potential nutraceutical food. The evidence for health-promoting effects of enriched eggs has also been included.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Shyma K. Latheef , Saminathan Mani , Hari Abdul Samad , K. Karthik , Ruchi Tiwari , Rifat Ullah Khan , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mayada R. Farag , Gazi Mahabubul Alam , Vito Laudadio and Vincenzo Tufarelli
  Herbal medicine or herbalism is a time-honored practice of natural medicine that is older than mankind itself. The practice of using traditional herbal medicine based therapy is nowadays gaining more attention worldwide in both human and animal health care systems. Among the livestock sectors, poultry production systems are the most intensively reared with developments especially in the areas of nutrition, disease control, genetic improvement, management and organization of dietary requirements along with the pressure of increasing demand for poultry products as well as threats of emerging pathogens. So this sector is badly in need of sustainable therapeutic and production aids especially based on herbs because of the advantages like, low cost, easy availability, no residual effect, free from the threat of antibiotic resistance etc. Many herbs have been recorded to be fruitfully used by veterinarians to treat a variety of disease conditions in animals. The present study discusses the various useful and practical applications of the rich heritage of herbal wealth for safeguarding poultry health in general, combating infectious as well as non-infectious diseases caused by microbes and parasites )both ecto-and endo parasites( along with immunomodulatory actions for countering immunosuppressive diseases. Moreover, highlighting herb-based poultry growth promoters for increasing production performances use of herbs as antioxidants and their role in organic egg and meat production is a special attraction of the review that will draw the attention of the poultry specialists as well as farming community. The information will be useful to increase poultry production and protect the health of birds in a better way from traditional ways towards modern perspectives and also would promote and popularize usage of herbs amongst poultry producers.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Mani Saminathan , Siju Susan Jacob , Mithilesh Singh , K. Karthik , Amarpal , Ruchi Tiwari , Lakshmi Tulasi Sunkara , Yashpal Singh Malik and Raj Kumar Singh
  In veterinary and medical sciences, immunomodulation is an area wherein extensive studies have been conducted to devise methods to improve disease resistance as well as to prevent or control immune disorders of host by optimum regulation of the immune system. Today, most infectious diseases of man and animals are treated and controlled mainly by using broad-spectrum antibiotics and vaccines. However, the antibacterial agents are becoming increasingly ineffective due to rapid emergence of resistant microbial strains. So, there is high requirement for novel and improved alternative therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to manage several diseases which are flaring at alarming pace because of the increase in international traffic, globalization and changing food habbits. Immunomodulation is focused on manipulation of immune system to control the infections and other adverse health effects with precise regulation to avoid any complications while suppressive or potentiating efforts are made to benefit the animal and human health. The main aim of this review is to give a closer insight into the potential immunomodulatory molecules, synthetic and natural, that are capable of modifying the immune responses including conventional and novel immunomodulators like adjuvants, cytokines, hormones, glucocorticoids, host defense peptides, microbial products, toll like receptors, synthetic compounds, probiotics, nutrients, vitamins, minerals, herbs, panchgavya, polysaccharides, helminths, vaccines and others. These immunomodulatory regimens could successfully offer the health industries with the most natural methods for enhancement of disease resistance, boosting vaccination immunity and prevention of various infections, disorders, cancer and stress related diseases. The updated information will be highly useful for scientists, veterinary/medical professionals, pharmaceutical industries, livestock and poultry industry to create a healthier future for people and their companion animals.
  Rifat Ullah Khan , Shabana Naz , Kuldeep Dhama , K. Karthik , Ruchi Tiwari , Mutassim M. Abdelrahman , Ibrahim A. Alhidary and Arshad Zahoor
  Recently, animal food industry has shown an increasing interest in Direct-Fed Microbials (DFM) to keep the concept of safe food supply at the consumer level. In the absence of suitable growth stimulant after banning the use of antibiotics in animal feed, a positive manipulation of rumen microbes has become the field research for entrepreneurs and research scientists. Direct-fed microbials is a term reserved for naturally occurring live microbes that can be supplemented orally to produce a beneficial health response in the host animal. A number of genera of live microorganisms including; bacteria, yeast and fungi are frequently used in different combination feed as DFM for domestic ruminants. It has been documented that these live culture of microbes improve ruminant productivity, milk production, immunity, digestibility of feed, counter infectious pathogens and protect health. Possible attempts have also been undertaken to justify the mechanism of these microbes. This review tries to summarize the effect of supplementation of DFM on the production, immune response, fermentation pattern and safeguarding health. The discussed concepts and advances concerning to DFM implementation will be useful not only for the researchers, animal owners, feed manufacturers, pharmacists, pharmaceutical companies, stake holders but will also boost the economic gains and profits by promoting the ruminant health and production through feed modification.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , K. Karthik , Sandip Chakraborty , Rajib Deb and Kuldeep Dhama
  Earth is rich in variety of plant species including the beneficial one having some medicinal properties. The use of herbal medicines for the treatment of various diseases like hepatitis, arthritis, chronic heart diseases, skin disorders, wounds and even cancer have been mentioned in our ‘ayurveda’ and proved scientifically by many researchers of modern times. Now-a-days, fruits and vegetables are gaining popularity in medicine for treating mastitis, foot-and-mouth disease, skin allergies, hypersensitivity reaction, tympany, food poisoning, retention of placenta etc. These medicines are suitable for both the human as well as animals being cost economic and without side effects. Out of 21,000 medicinal plants listed by World Health organization, 2,500 species are found in India making India the largest potential producer of medicinal herbs. The plant or herbs particularly the fruits and vegetables are the cheapest and most common store of nutrients viz., carbohydrates, protein, vitamin, minerals and essential amino acids along with dietary fiber and thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and obesity. Apart from this, fruits and vegetables also supply additional vitamins and minerals to the diet and are important sources of phytochemicals that play important role as antioxidants, phytoestrogens and anti-inflammatory agents and through various protective mechanisms. Fruits and vegetables have the potential to develop nutritional ingredients and supplements, causing a change in the perception of horticultural crops and products and helps in anaerobic digestion. The present review discusses the role of fiber and health benefits of fruits and vegetables for humans and their companion animals.
  K. Karthik
  At its 20th session in November 1997, the IMO Assembly adopted resolution A.850 (20) on the human element vision, principles and goals for the organization. The resolution recalled a previous resolution (A.680 (17)) which invited governments to encourage those responsible for the management and operation of ships to develop, implement and assess safety and pollution prevention management systems and another (A.772 (18)), concerning fatigue factors in manning and safety which aims at increasing awareness of the complexity of fatigue and encourages all parties involved in ship operations to take these factors into account when making operational decisions. The resolution acknowledged the need for increased focus on human-related activities in the safe operation of ships and the need to achieve and maintain high standards of safety and environmental protection for the purpose of significantly reducing maritime casualties. The resolution was updated by resolution A.947 (23) human element vision, principles and goals for the organization adopted by the 23rd Assembly in November-December 2003. Through this study researcher would like to draw attention to three aspects of significance. First to recall the human element vision, principles and goals for the organization, next to review some of major maritime disasters that had taken place in the last century in order to highlight on the role of human element that led to such disasters and then to focus on the needfor sustained and progressive training essentially to the seagoing component of human element in order to overcome the challenges posted by the dizzying rate of change in technology.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Amit Kumar Verma , S. Rajagunalan , Rajib Deb , K. Karthik , Sanjay Kapoor , Mahima , Ruchi Tiwari , Parmod Kumar Panwar and Sandip Chakraborty
  Flu viruses have mainly affected humans, birds and pigs worldwide. During the past 10 years these viruses are in limelight at a global level due to pandemic threats of Avian / Bird Flu and Swine Flu and their public health impacts, with added pandemic of swine flu virus recently. The current ongoing episodes of bird flu and swine flu are beyond the control, when and where or which country they start with nobody can predict. The continuous evolution and emergence of new strains indicate that the flu viruses are becoming more and more dangerous and this situation has posed a challenge to researchers to discover effective vaccines and therapeutics. Moreover, the role of pig as ‘mixing bowl’ for the virus to get reassorted has added to the complicated epidemiological scenario. The swine flu H1N1 reassorted subtype caused the first global pandemic in last 40 years, resulting in substantial illness, hospitalizations of millions of peoples and thousands of deaths throughout the world. A pace is there within these novel and emerging flu viruses and the scientific community, where the scientific community has to win the race so as to save the mankind. In this review, a brief overview on swine flu is presented highlighting the characteristics of the causative virus, the disease and its public health consequences, advances made in its diagnosis, vaccine and control, precautionary measures to be adapted in the wake of an outbreak.
  Mahima , Abhijeet M. Ingle , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , K. Karthik , Sandip Chakraborty , Rajib Deb , S. Rajagunalan , Rajesh Rathore and Kuldeep Dhama
  There are ongoing trends of immunomodulation to combat a vast range of human and animal diseases including the incurable diseases like viral diseases, cancers, autoimmune diseases and inflammatory conditions. Animate as well as non-animate factors, surrounding us are interacting with our immune system. A balanced diet should contain all essential components from energy to vitamin and trace minerals. Each of these constituent has a very special effect on the immune system starting from their development to active role in immunity therefore, the outcome of their deficiency often ends in disease. Edible items which we consume like various vegetables, spices, herbs, fruits etc., are also equally responsible in manipulation of our system either in positive or negative way. Water has biggest share in our body and acts as the main medium to support the activities of the different system of body without exception of immune system. Proper environmental temperature is essential to maintain body’s functions and experiments carried out regarding the effect of temperature suggest that extremes of the temperature are often cause immunosuppression directly by acting on the cells of immunity or indirectly through inducing stress and thereby increasing production of catecholamine which are potent anti-immune molecules. Various pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic bacteria cause immune suppression and immune potentiation, respectively. Proper exercise hold a prime position in the healthy life as it supports immunity and keeps disease away. The present review deals with all these immunomodulators having both positive and negative impact on the health status of an individual.
  Kuldeep Dhama , K. Karthik , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari , Sanjay Kapoor , Amit Kumar and Prasad Thomas
  Diagnosis is an important part in case of animal husbandry as treatment of a disease depends on it. Advancement in molecular biology has generated various sophisticated tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), its versions along with pen-side diagnostic techniques. Every diagnostic test however has both advantages and disadvantages; PCR is not an exception to this statement. To ease the odds faced by PCR several non-PCR techniques which can amplify DNA at a constant temperature has become the need of hour, thus generating a variety of isothermal amplification techniques including Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification (NASBA) along with Self-Sustained Sequence Replication (3SR) and Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) and Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test. LAMP stands out to be a good and effective diagnostic test for empowering in developing countries as it does not require sophisticated equipments and skilled personnel and proves to be cost-effective. Performance of LAMP mainly relies on crafting of six primers (including 2 loop primers) ultimately accelerating the reaction. LAMP amplifies DNA in the process pyrophosphates are formed causing turbidity that facilitates visualisation in a more effective way than PCR. The Bst and Bsm polymerase are the required enzymes for LAMP that does not possess 5'-3' exonuclease activity. Results can be visualized by adding DNA binding dye, SYBR green. LAMP is more stable than PCR and real-time PCR. Non-involvement of template DNA preparation and ability to generate 109 copies of DNA are added benefits that make it more effective than NASBA or 3SR and SDA. Thus, it fetches researcher’s interest in developing various versions of LAMP viz., its combination with lateral flow assay or micro LAMP and more recently lyophilized and electric (e) LAMP. Availability of ready to use LAMP kits has helped diagnosis of almost all pathogens. LAMP associated technologies however needs to be developed as a part of LAMP platform rather than developing them as separate entities. This review deals with all these salient features of this newly developed tool that has enlightened the world of diagnosis.
 
 
 
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