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Articles by K. Kadirgama
Total Records ( 13 ) for K. Kadirgama
  K. Kadirgama and K.A. Abou-El-Hossein
  This study discussed the development of the first and second order power prediction model for milling 618 stainless steel with coated carbides cutting tool. The first and second order model has been developed by using response surface methodology with 4 factors. The surface method methodology has been analysis with using statistical software Minitab. From the model the equation that relates the factors (cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth and radial depth) with response (power) can be develop. Beside the relationship, the effect of the factors can be investigated from the equation develop. From the equation develop; the contour plot can be generated to predict the power at any zone of experimental zone.The model generated show that the power increases when cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth and radial depth are increased. The second-order is more accurate compare with the first order.
  M.M. Noor , K. Kadirgama , Aidy Ali , M.M. Rahman and Z. Ghazalli
  Problem statement: Environment issue on the dumping of used household product is a big challenge nowadays. Towards green design, life cycle of a product is very crucial. This study discussed on recycling strategies which include reuse, service, remanufacture and recycle with or without disassembly by using Support Vector Machine Method (SVM). Approach: In early stage of prediction, the input parameters of wear-out life; technology cycle, level of integration, number of parts, reason for redesign and design cycle were incorporated. Six household equipments were studied includes vacuum cleaner, washing machine, television, portable radio and hand held vacuum. Results: The end life predicted results were compared with the previous literature study. Conclusion: The developed End Of Life (EOL) strategies model is good in agreement with existing industry practice.
  M.M. Rahman , Khalaf I. Hamada , M.M. Noor , Rosli A. Bakar , K. Kadirgama and M.A. Maleque
  Problem statement: The variation of the in-cylinder gas flow characteristics for single cylinder port injection hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine was investigated through transient state simulation. Approach: One dimensional gas dynamics was described the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine model. Special attention is paid to selection and correction of heat transfer correlation which describe of in-cylinder heat transfer to coincide with the practical observations. The engine model was simulated with variable engine speed and Air Fuel Ratio (AFR). Engine speed varied from 2000-5000 rpm with increment equal to 1000 rpm, while AFR changed from stoichiometric to lean limit. Results: The acquired results showed that the maximum in-cylinder temperature and pressure obtained of 2753 K and 49.62 bar at 24°CA ATDC and 13°CA ATDC for AFR = 34.33 respectively, while the minimum in-cylinder temperature and pressure obtained of 1366 K and 29.14 bar at 18 deg CA of ATDC and 8 deg CA of ATDC for AFR = 171.65 respectively. The obtained results show that AFR has a crucial effect on characteristics variation during the power cycle whilst engine speed has minor effects. Conclusion: These results utilized for study the combustion process, fuel consumption, emission production and engine performance.
  M. M. Rahman , Khalaf I. Hamada , M. M. Noor , Rosli A. Bakar , K. Kadirgama and M. A. Maleque
  This study presented in-cylinder heat transfer characteristics of a single cylinder port injection Hydrogen fueled Internal Combustion Engine (H2ICE) using a steady state approach. Problem statement: The differences in characteristics between hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels are led to the difference in the behavior of physical processes during engine cycle. One of these processes is the in-cylinder heat transfer. Approach: One dimensional gas dynamic model was used to describe the heat transfer characteristics of the engine. The engine speed was varied from 2000-5000 rpm, crank angle from -40° to +100°, while Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) was changed from stoichiometric to lean limit. Results: The simulated results showed higher heat transfer rate but lower heat transfer to total fuel energy ratio with increasing the engine speed. The in-cylinder pressure and temperature were increased with decreasing AFR and increasing engine speed. The in-cylinder air flow rate was increased linearly with increasing engine speed as well as air fuel ratio. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results showed that the AFR has a vital effect on characteristics variation while the engine speed has minor effect. These results can be utilized for the study of combustion process, fuel consumption, emission production and engine performance.
  H.H. Habeeb , K.A. Abou-El-Hossein , Bashir Mohamad , Jahara A. Ghani and K. Kadirgama
  This study discusses about behavior of cutting tools in term of tool wear, tool life and surface roughness integrity when machining of nickel based alloys 242. Experimental tests were conducted using four different cutting tool materials under wet condition. They are TiAlN, TiCN/TiN, TiAlN/TiN (PVD) and TiCN/Al2O3 (CVD). Tool failure modes and wear mechanism for all cutting tools were examined at various cutting parameters. Flank wear was found to be the predominant tool wear for the four types of cutting tools especially with CVD tools. Coating is observed to be delaminated as main phenomena on all cutting tools surfaces. The obtained results have indicated that PVD cutting tools perform better than CVD cutting tools. The thickness of coating layers for CVD is thicker than PVD. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used to support this study in term of analysis of cutting tool deformation and cutting temperature.
  K. Kadirgama and K.A. Abou-El-Hossein
  This study describes application of neural network methods to predict the cutting force model in milling 618 stainless steel. Cutting force was taken as response and the variables (cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth and radial depth). Design of experiments was used to reduce the number of the experiments and provide the optimum experiments condition. The predictive result between experimental result and neural network were compared. The error from the neural network prediction result was acceptable since the value of the prediction was closer to the experimental result.
  K. Kadirgama and K.A. Abou-El- Hossein
  The aim of this study was to develop the first and second order torque prediction model for milling 618 stainless steel with coated carbides cutting tool, using response surface methodology with 4 factors. From the model the equation that relates the factors (cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth and radial depth) with response (torque) can be developed. Beside the relationship, the effect of the factors can be investigated from the equation developed. The model generated show that the torque reach the maximum value when cutting speed decreased and, feed rate, axial depth and radial depth are increased. The second order is more accurate based on the variance analysis and the predicted value is closer with the experimental result.
  K. Kadirgama , M.M. Noor , M.M. Rahman , Rosli A. Bakar and Abou-El Hossein
  This study presents the development of mathematical models for torque in end-milling of AISI 618. Response Surface Method (RSM) was used to predict the effect of torque in the end-milling. The relationship between the manufacturing process factors including the cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth and radial depth with the torque can be developed. The effect of the factors can be investigated from the equation developed for first order to fourth order model. The acquired results show that the torque increases with decreases of the cutting speed and increases the feed rate, axial depth and radial depth. It found that the second order is more accurate based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the predicted torque results is closely match with the experimental results. Third- and fourth-order model generated for the response to investigate the 3 and 4-way interaction between the factors. It’s found less significant for the variables.
  M.M. Rahman , A.K. Ariffin , M.R.M. Rejab , K. Kadirgama and M.M. Noor
  This study was presented the assessment of multiaxial fatigue criteria of cylinder head for a free piston linear engine using finite element analysis techniques. The structural solid modeling of cylinder head was developed utilizing the computer-aided design software. The finite element modeling and analysis were performed utilizing the finite element analysis codes. The biaxiality analysis was performed to assess the multiaxial fatigue. The material parameter and Hoffmann-Seeger methods were considered to modify the uniaxial material properties. Prediction of fatigue life, effect of the stress combination for the proportional loading condition was investigated in this study. It can be seen that the biaxiality correction method gives conservative predicted life as compared to the uniaxial loading. The materials parameter correction method gives most conservative prediction with SWT criteria. It is also observed that more conservative prediction to use Signed Tresca parameter and Signed von Mises stress gives the result that lie between the absolute maximum principal and signed Tresca results. This approach shows to be quite suitable for integration with a commercial finite element code to provide for an integrated design environment for fatigue life evaluation under general multiaxial loading conditions.
  M.M. Rahman , K.I. Hamada , M.M. Noor , K. Kadirgama , M.A. Maleque and R.A. Bakar
  This study presents a comparative study of heat transfer characteristics in intake port for spark ignition engine using hydrogen and methane as a fuel. The fuels are led to the different behavior of physical processes during the engine cycle. One-dimensional gas dynamics was used to describe the flow and heat transfer in the components of the engine model. The engine model has been simulated with variable engine speed and equivalence ratio (φ). Engine speed has been varied from 2000 to 5000 rpm with increment of 1000 rpm, while equivalence ratio has been changed from stoichiometric to lean limit. The baseline engine model has been verified with existing previous published results. The obtained results are shown that the engine speed has the same effect on the heat transfer coefficient for hydrogen and methane fuel; while equivalence ratio is effect on heat transfer coefficient in case of hydrogen fuel only. Rate of increase in heat transfer coefficient comparison with stoichiometric case for hydrogen fuel are: 4% for (φ = 0.6) and 8% for (φ = 0.2). While negligible effect was found in case of methane fuel with change of equivalence ratio. But methane is given greater values about 11% for all engine speed values compare with hydrogen fuel under stoichiometric condition. The blockage phenomenon affects the heat transfer process dominantly in case of hydrogen fuel; however the forced convection was influencing the heat transfer process for hydrogen and methane cases.
  H.H. Habeeb , K. Kadirgama , M.M. Noor , M.M. Rahman , B. Mohammad , R.A. Bakar and K.A. Abouel Hossein
  This study discusses the development of first and second order of surface roughness prediction model when machining Haynes 242 alloy with Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) at dry condition. The relationship between the cutting parameters (cutting speed, axial depth and feedrate) with surface roughness are discussed. Response Surface Method (RSM) has been selected to optimize the cutting parameters and reduce the number of experiments. Surface roughness obtained in these experiments ranged from 0.052-0.08 μm, which consider as an extremely fine finish. Increase in cutting speed from 70 to 300 m min-1, the roughness getting finer. On other hand, increase in feedrate (0.1 to 0.3 mm tooth-1) and axial depth (0.025 to 0.075 mm) surface roughness become rougher.
  M.M. Rahman , M.A.R. Khan , K. Kadirgama , M.M. Noor and R.A. Bakar
  This study presents the experimental investigation of the machining characteristics of austenitic stainless steel 304 through electric discharge machining. The effectiveness of the EDM process with stainless steel is evaluated in terms of the removal rate (MRR), the Tool Wear Rate (TWR) and the surface roughness of the work-piece produced. The experimental work is conducted utilizing Die Sinking electrical discharge machine of AQ55L model. Cylindrical copper electrode having a size of Ø19x37 mm and positive polarity for electrode (reverse polarity) is used to machine austenitic stainless steel 304 materials. The work material holds tensile strength of 580 and 290 MPa as yield strength. The size of the work-piece was Ø22x30 mm. Investigations indicate that increasing the peak current increases the MRR and the surface roughness. The TWR increases with peak ampere until 150 μ sec pulse-on time. From the experimental results no tool wear condition is noted for copper electrode at long pulse-on time with reverse polarity. The optimal pulse-on time is changed with high ampere.
  K. Kadirgama , M.M. Noor , M.M. Rahman , K.A. Abou-El-Hossein , B. Mohammad and H. Habeeb
  This study was developed the Finite Element Model (FEM) and Response Surface Method (RSM) to investigate the effect of milling parameters on frictions when milling Hastelloy C-22HS. This study gain better understanding of the friction distribution in metal cutting process. The RSM was used to minimize the number of simulation. The contour plot from RSM shows the relationship between input variables including the cutting speed, feed rate and axial depth and responses including the friction coefficient, friction angle, friction stress and friction force. Feed rate, axial depth and cutting speed play major role to generate high friction coefficient, friction angle, friction stress and friction force. When all the variables at highest value the friction stress become larger, on the other hand reduce the feed rate and increase other variable, it cause high friction coefficient, angle and force. The combination of numerical analysis and statistical method are very useful to analysis the distribution of friction in milling. It is suitable to use middle value of cutting speed, feed rate and axial depth when milling same type of materials.
 
 
 
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