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Articles by K. Jumari
Total Records ( 13 ) for K. Jumari
  S.E. Ghrare , M.A. Mohd. Ali , K. Jumari and M. Ismail
  Problem statement: Nowadays a large number of various medical images are generated from hospitals and medical centers with sophisticated image acquisition devices, the movement toward digital images in radiology presents the problem of how to conveniently and economically store, retrieve and transmit the volume of digital images. Thus digital image data compression is necessary in order to solve this problem. So in a wide range of medical applications such as disease diagnostic and during the compression process, the loss of information is unacceptable; hence medical images are required to be at high resolution as possible. Instead of lossy compression with relatively high compression ratio, mathematical lossless compression methods are favored in this field. Approach: In this study, an efficient new lossless image coding algorithm using a simple technique was presented. Our coding algorithm was based on pixel redundancy reduction by formulating two matrices only, which were Gray Scale Matrix (GSM) and Binary Matrix (BM). These matrices had been used for coding and decoding processes. Results: Results showed that the maximum compression ratio achieved using the proposed method was 4:1, which was more efficient than the present lossless techniques, moreover the computational complexity is greatly simplified; therefore producing very fast coding and decoding. Conclusion: This algorithm was most suitable for those images where lossy compression was avoided such as medical images used for teleradiology and other telemedicine purposed and it can be applied to other medical modalities.
  S. Shahbazi , K. Jumari and M. Ismail
  Problem statement: Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) protocol has been thesubject of various criticisms due its problematic performance in large-scale networks. S-RTCP is aprotocol with high potential as it has proved to be able to solve many problems of RTCP. It hasnumerous flaws on its own. This study aimed at dealing with flaws of S-RTCP and improving it interms of stability and packet loss.
Approach: A new proposed scheme was designed. Modificationsincluded designing multi-manager scheme, improving parent-seeking procedures, reducing distributionof request packets, reforming the design to be independent from TTL, adding methods to check on sanityof manager nodes. This study considered packet loss ratio of below 2% as desirable.
Results: ER-RTCPcomparing to legacy RTCP in terms of packet loss using NS-2 in four different scenarios revealedimprovements between 73 and 88% for various scenarios. It also kept packet loss rate below 2% for allscenarios. Comparison of ER-RTCP to S-RTCP showed that based on different α (stability of eachsingle manager) values, ER-RTCP was more stable as it showed more resistance to entire schemebreakdown (β). ER-RTCP's parent-seeking procedure, as modeled scenario revealed a packetgeneration reduction of 97%, compared to S-RTCP’s. In occurrence of parent AG leave or loss, ERRTCPreduced request packet generation by 95%. Allowance of AG dismissing in ER-RTCP, avoidedoccurrence of packet loss, as sample scenario showed S-RTCP experiencing packet loss of 3.5% whileER-RTCP kept packet loss at zero in theory.
Conclusion: Proposed design improved S-RTCP in termsof reduction of packet loss and stability.
  Omar M. Eshanta , M. Ismail , K. Jumari and P. Yahaya
  In IEEE 802.16, one of the main features is the QoS-Provisioning. The limited bandwidth and the increasing of the high data rate service users will impact the performance of the system. In this study, we propose a VHO algorithm that can support the provisioning of QoS in mobile WiMAX networks by handing over some Best-Effort (BE) low-speed WiMAX Subscriber Station (SS) to an overlaid WLAN network subject to the QoS guarantee for the SS. Our simulation results show that by utilizing the overlaid WLAN hotspots we can gain some free band for the new SS requests. According to our simulation results a significant improvement in the capacity and the probability of blocking (PB) in WiMAX network was achieved.
  Z.M. Hanapi , M. Ismail , K. Jumari , M. Mahdavi and H. Mirvaziri
  In this study, different collection window’s size is been analyzed to investigate the impact on network performance: packet delivery ratio, message overhead and end to end delay on the Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWIGF) routing protocol where this protocol is based on a dynamic collection window approached. Its method on using dynamic window’s size has minimized the probability of selecting attackers and guaranteed high packet delivery ratios when there is a blackhole attack in the communication link. The DWSIGF is then compared with the best chosen window’s size to analyze the network performance with and without attacker in the communication line, respectively. The DWIGF is able to minimize a Clear To Send (CTS) rushing attack that leads to a blackhole and selectively forwarding attack with a guaranteed of high packet delivery ratios where a selection of a failed node and an attacker is minimized, respectively. As a result, this routing protocol is promising a dynamic and secured communication without inserting any existing security mechanism inside.
  M. Mahdavi , M. Ismail , K. Jumari and Z.M. Hanapi
  Sensing coverage and network connectivity are two main requirements which maintain perfect operation of wireless sensor network. Joint scheduling method has considered both requirements by using random scheduling for sensing coverage, which divides sensor nodes to k subsets. Each sensor nodes randomly selects one defined subset. Then, the algorithm turns on extra sensor nodes, if necessary for network connectivity. As Extra-on sensor nodes participate in other nodes routing, some of them may be subject of many times transmission and reception. Furthermore, some of Extra-on nodes should be active the whole time to create network connectivity. Both mentioned reasons can drain out energy of those extra active nodes and may lead to network partitioning. Hence, reducing number of Extra-on nodes is important. In this study, we utilize probing mechanism scheduling in joint scheduling method to reduce the number of extra on sensor nodes. By using probing mechanism that some nodes change their working schedule, number of extra on nodes reduces by 20%.
  K. Singh , M. Ismail , K. Jumari , M. Abdullah and K. Mat

This study presents the development of techniques to estimate mobile user`s location (position) for Universal Intelligent Positioning System (UIPS) project. UIPS uses combination of available Location Determining Technologies (LDT) and newly developed techniques for UMTS (3G) or beyond networks. The usage of each LDT (technique) will determine Location Base Services QoS (accuracy of mobile user`s location). The new techniques developed are Close Circle Correlation (CCC) and Newton Raphsons 3 Circles (NR3C). Both techniques use time measurements observed from three Node B (base stations) in known Line of Sight (LOS) environment (multipath time delays are known). For unknown LOS environment, further enhancements on CCC technique and NR3C technique are developed, such as Averaging Estimator of CCC, First Mean Averaging Estimator of NR3C and Random Search Averaging Estimator of NR3C. The Cumulative Distribution Function of simulated results (simulation of actual data collected through drive test in UMTS network with known LOS) using NR3C technique produced 67% of the estimated user`s location error at 0 m and 95% of the estimated location error at 1.7 nm. Using CCC technique, produced 67% estimated location error at 2.04 m and 95% estimated location error at 3.2 m. NR3C produces better accuracy in known conditions of multipath delays. In unknown LOS conditions, Averaging Estimator of CCC produced 67% location error at 50.67 m and 95% error at 218 m, which is better than the other two enhanced (averaging) techniques of NR3C.

  M.S. Ab-Rahman , B.C. Ng and K. Jumari
  This study presented a Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) network management system named Smart Access Network_Testing, Analyzing and Database (SANTAD) for optical monitoring and network troubleshooting based on Visual Basic. SANTAD is the new upgraded values of recent FTTH technology toward the implementation of smart network, which involved in the centralized monitoring, failure detection, automatic recovery and increases the survivability and maintainability of FTTH. The working principles of SANTAD are structured into remote access control and advanced data analyzing for pre-configured protection and post-fault restoration in FTTH. The developed program is able to quick identify any occurrence of fault and address the exact failure location in the network system. This study also described how the FTTH can reduce the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in order to contribute to wider global struggle to ensure our future environment and discussed the uses of laser as optical source in optical fiber communication system as well as the eye safety issues with laser.
  F. Sayadi , M. Ismail , N. Misran and K. Jumari
  In this study, tunnels radio coverage utilizing leaky coaxial cable has been described. This cable can be deployed as a base station antenna for indoor wireless system such as tunnels. The older type of leaky cables is called coupled mode, while latest type is called radiation mode. These two modes can be distinguished by their radiation pattern, method of radiation (i.e., wave or energy) and class of slot on outer conductor. To obtain the field radiation patterns, we use two models; diffuse and deterministic models. Then a modified ray tracing algorithm has been used and simulated to predict radio coverage in tunnels by leaky cable deployment. Simulations show that leaky cables achieve better RF coverage than distributed antennas in term of received signal level versus frequency for various lengths and cross section of tunnels.
  A.N. H. Alnuaimy , M. Ismail , M.A. M. Ali and K. Jumari
  In an improved algorithm of channel estimations of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system based pilot signal, the channel will be estimated using the mean and the variance of the two adjusted channel samples which have been extracted from that those embedded pilot signal in given positions of the frequency-time grid of OFDM signals. In this study, we present the application of Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) over an improved algorithm of the of the channel estimation of OFDM system based pilot signal and the usage of wavelet de-noising filter for that estimated channel sample to reduce the noise which affect the estimation of the channel. Simulation results shows that the combination of the TCM and the Wavelet de-noising filter will increase the performance of the OFDM system over that improved algorithm for the channel estimations.
  M.S. Ab-Rahman , B.C. Ng , R. Kasimin and K. Jumari
  This study introduces a low cost technique for testing and monitoring process that can be applied specifically for Fiber-to-the-Home Passive Optical Network (FTTH-PON). The simplest and low cost method would be using a Optical Power Meter (OPM) which is able to detect the total loss on the network. However, to identify faulty sections of a network, segmentation need to be done together with the optical power meter. Another testing and troubleshooting method would be using the Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer (OTDR). The OTDR within the network is able to detect the component that causes losses in the network. However, elements acting as a power splitter are not being able to be detected by the OTDR. Therefore, the Access Control System (ACS) is developed to bypass those elements and allows the use of OTDR entirely. This method is proven to be a faster method than the first. Additionally, it can be upgraded to monitor the line status by accumulate all the result in one display computer screen. But this mechanism is not interested to be discussed detail in this study. The new configuration of FTTH is named as modified FTTH. In the end, we compare the installation cost between the conventional and modified FTTH for different network size according to number of users.
  M.S. Ab-Rahman , S.A.C. Aziz and K. Jumari
  Fiber-to-the Home (FTTH) network security has become a very essential and important topic for optical network. Fault isolation became important issues in order to provide an efficient FTTH network and simultaneously will provide continuous services to the end user without being interrupted by any failure in fiber line. In this study we discussed about the analysis for restoration scheme proposed in order to proof the system feasibility in our network survivability. Restoration scheme against the failure in distribution fiber line has been proposed. In this study, we implement a protection scheme for a novel tree-based for Intermediate Split Structure (ISS) in the drop region section. The protection mechanism will have capability to divert the signal onto protection line according to the types of failure condition and location of failures in access network. Method of analysis is discussed in two different ways, which are in ideal condition analysis and non-ideal analysis. Under ideal analysis it is involved in simulation approach according to proposed restoration scheme design. The system performance was investigated through the most common test on high-speed digital communications components and system that include the eye diagram, jitter, Q factor and bit error rate measurement. While under the non-ideal analysis it has been discussed about the power penalty analysis for optical switch cascaded in our network protection design according to the types of failure conditions.
  M.S. Ab-Rahman , L. Al-Hakim Azizan , S.A.C. Aziz and K. Jumari
  In this study, a technique for automatic restoration scheme for the ease of customers in a passive optical network is proposed. Protection switching against the failure in fiber line is carried out using our restoration scheme. The smart and intelligent system of FTTH is expected to be a key element which provides centralized monitoring, survivability and instantly maintenance of FTTH customer access network. In this study, we implement a cost effective restoration scheme for a novel tree-based for Intermediate Split Structure (ISS) in the drop region section. The protection mechanism for tree based optical switch will have capability to divert the signal onto protection line according to the types of failure condition and location of failures in access network by means of Zig Zag mechanism. This will ensure the data flow continuously due to breakdown occur in the network and instantly repair operation. We employ the dedicated and shared protection in our design. Four faulty conditions are considered in this article and OptiSystem, Inc. software is used to prove the solution feasibility. This study focused on the eye diagram parameter analysis in the FTTH-PON network during the working and failure condition. Four parameters will be concentrated which are BER, eye opening, maximum Q factor and jitter. In the case of failure condition, four restoration schemes are activated to ensure the signal flow continuously without perturbation.
  K. Singh , S. Sulaiman , M. Ismail and K. Jumari
  In this study, a Location Determining Technique (LDT) to determine the approximate position of a cellular mobile user in a suburban environment is presented. This LDT uses Signal Correlation Method (SCM) where the Received Signal Strength (RSS) of one Node B is used to approximate the location of the 3G data user in a suburban environment. A new training technique called Unique Sample Undefined Collection (USUC) is introduced for SCM which uses Neural Network to match the current RSS with stored signal strength of Node Bs detected around the User Equipment (UE). With this new technique, the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) for location estimation at 67% error distance between the simulated samples and the actual positions of UE was significantly reduced from 379 to 107.4 m, while at 95% of the simulated samples, the error distance remains approximately the same, at 379 m. SCM-USUC may not be suitable for emergency location search but should be utilized by Universal Intelligent Positioning System (UIPS) for tracking location of UE when data or voice services are used especially in larger cell areas, such as in suburban environment.
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