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Articles by K. Duraiswamy
Total Records ( 14 ) for K. Duraiswamy
  T. Poongothai and K. Duraiswamy
  Intrusion detection on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) is a challenging task due to its unique characteristics such as open medium, dynamic topology, lack of centralized management and highly resource constrained nodes. Conventional Intrusion Detection System developed for wired networks cannot be directly applied to MANET. It needs to be redesigned to suit the ad hoc technology. Proposed IDS uses cross layer features instead of using single layer features to improve the performance. Also, the proposed system maximizes the detection accuracy by using two machine learning techniques. Support Vector Machines (SVM) and rough set theory are used together to take the advantage of better accuracy of SVM and faster speed of rough set. The performance of the system is validated using Network Simulator (NS2). The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed IDS effectively detect the anomalies with high detection accuracy.
  R. Nallusamy and K. Duraiswamy
  Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in monitoring and collecting data from difficult geographical terrains. They find useful applications in various fields ranging from environmental monitoring to monitoring the patients’ conditions in hospitals. The constraints such as limited battery life and less processing capability of the sensors make the processing and routing of WSNs a tedious and challenging task. A great emphasis is laid on the development of alternate sources of power and energy efficient routing protocol to maximize the life of the network. This study reviews the utilization of solar energy to enhance the life of the WSNs in environmental applications and also the various routing algorithms for WSNs. In current scenario, there are always impending threats from militants and terrorists within and out of a country. The sensor networks play a vital role in minimizing the loss of human lives in the event of natural calamities and artificial sabotages. The sensor networks can be successfully deployed in any difficult geographical terrains where manual round-the-clock surveillance is highly impossible. Energy aware routing is immensely helpful to sensor networks in the aspect of extending the life span of the WSNs. The review results show that the performance of solar powered sensor networks is better than that of conventional battery powered WSNs and they work efficiently with increased life span.
  A. Sabari and K. Duraiswamy
  In this study, we proposed to design a Reliable and Power Efficient Multicast Routing (RPEMR) protocol by using swarm intelligence with the help of reliability metric. In this protocol, reliability metric is computed by each node based on the power, bandwidth and mobility. Then the reliable nodes with the high reliability metric are determined. The swarm’s forward and backward agents construct a backbone for multicasting, by estimating the best path which connects the reliable nodes through intermediate nodes. The established paths provide reliable, shorter and faster communication. By simulation results, we show that the proposed protocol provides reliable and power efficient multicasting routing, by attaining high packet delivery ratio and low energy consumption, compared to the existing protocols.
  V. Ravi and K. Duraiswamy
  In order to deal with wide range of operating environment and disturbance, Power System Stabilizers (PSS) should be developed with appropriate stabilization signals. Recently, stabilizing control techniques for the Multi-Machine Power System with the help of intelligent methods have been developed. The main aim for the stability analysis of the power system is because of the importance of the power systems in the present world. Moreover, industries do not encourage the controller design if power system stability is not significant. In order to handle the above mentioned problems, intelligent approaches are used. The optimal sequential design for Multi-Machine Power Systems is very vital and many techniques are widely used to deal with control signals in power system. Most widely used optimization technique is Genetic Algorithm (GA). But GA takes more time in optimization and lack in accuracy. To overcome the above mentioned issues, this study uses Non-dominated Ranked Genetic Algorithm (NRGA) for optimization. Simulation results suggest that the proposed stabilization approach is better when compared to the conventional techniques.
  N.S. Nithya and K. DuraiSwamy
  Fuzzy Association Rule Mining algorithm is very efficient for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of diseases in medical field compared to other classification technique. But it suffers from exponential growth of rules produced. Identifying the most important risk factor is one of the main tasks in medical data mining. To obtain these objectives the new algorithm using information gain ranking based weight for fuzzy associative classification is proposed. The ranking of attributes eliminates irrelevant attributes and assign weight value used for assessing the risk factor of diseases. Elimination of irrelevant attributes and ranking used to extract important rules in fuzzy association rule mining which reduce the computation time and increase the classification accuracy. The results are verified using the breast cancer dataset, heart diseases dataset with different categories of attributes to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
  A. Rajiv Kannan , K. Duraiswamy and K. Sangeetha
  Introduction: An important and challenging problem is that of tracing DOS/DDOS attack source. IP traceback is the process of identifying the actual source(s) of attack packets, So that the attackers can be held accountable as also in mitigating them, either by isolating the attack sources or by filtering packets for away from the victim. Several IP traceback schemes have been proposed to solve this problem. Among many IP traceback schemes, a recent development was DGT (Directed Geographical Traceback). Though multidirectional two-dimensional DGT schemes were available, in the real scenario, three dimensional, Multidirectional DGT has potential applications.

Materials and methods: The direction ratio algorithm [DRA] has the limitation of the impossibility of ensuring sufficient unused space in the packet header for the complete DRL (Direction Ratio List) especially when the length of the path is not known apriori. To overcome this, DRSA was proposed. The methods used in DRSA were random sampling methods, where the sufficient numbers of samples were drawn; one can reconstruct the path of the attack packets and trace the attack source.

Results: In this paper those limitation had been overcome using DRSA (Direction Ratio Sampling Algorithm) which works well for Three dimensional, Multi-Directional, Geographical IP traceback. This approach enables the attack path reconstruction was easily possible and hence a victim can typically reconstruct the path after receiving 75 packets from the attacker. This same algorithm can efficiently discern multiple attacks. When attackers from different sources produce disjoint edges in the tree structure of reconstruction, the number of packets needed to reconstruct each path is independent of other paths.

Conclusion: DRSA was found to be a robust scheme of attack path reconstruction in Geographical traceback.

  Gnanasekaran T. and K. Duraiswamy
  Problem statement: In this study we propose a method to improve the performance of Maximum A-Posteriori Probability Algorithm, which is used in turbo decoder. Previously the performance of turbo decoder is improved by means of scaling the channel reliability value. Approach: A modification in MAP algorithm proposed in this study, which achieved further improvement in forward error correction by means of scaling the extrinsic information in both decoders without introducing any complexity. The encoder was modified with a new puncturing matrix, which yields Unequal Error Protection (UEP). This modified MAP algorithm was analyzed with the traditional turbo code system Equal Error Protection (EEP) and also with Unequal Error Protection (UEP) both in AWGN channel and fading channel. Result: MAP and modified MAP achieve coding gain of 0.6 dB over EEP in AWGN channel. The MAP and modified MAP achieve coding gain of 0.4 dB and 0.9dB over EEP respectively in Rayleigh fading channel. Modified MAP in UEP class 1 and class 2 gained 0.8 dB and 0.6 dB respectively in AWGN channel where as in fading channel class 1 and 2 gained 0.4 dB and 0.6 dB respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The modified MAP algorithm improved the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance in EEP as well as UEP both in AWGN and fading channels. We proposed modified MAP error correction algorithm with UEP for broad band communication.
  N. Shanthi and K. Duraiswamy
  This study describes a system for recognizing offline handwritten Tamil characters using Support Vector Machine (SVM). Data samples are collected from different writers on A4 sized documents. They are scanned using a flat bed scanner at a resolution of 300 dpi and stored as grey scale images. Various preprocessing operations are performed on the digitized image to enhance the quality of the image. Random sized preprocessed image is normalized to uniform sized image. Pixel densities are calculated for different zones of the image and these values are used as the features of a character. These features are used to train and test the support vector machine. The support vector machine is tested for the first time for recognizing handwritten Tamil characters. The recognition results are tested for 3 different standard sizes of 32X32, 48X48 and 64X64. Pixel densities are calculated for various zones and also for overlapping zones of the 64X64 sized image. Best results are obtained for 64X64 sized normalized image with overlapping windows. The handwriting system is trained for 106 different characters and test results are given for 34 different Tamil characters. With a simple feature of pixel density, the system has achieved a very good recognition rate of 87.4% on the totally unconstrained handwritten Tamil character database.
  N. Karthikeyan , V. Palanisamy and K. Duraiswamy

Problem statement: Network wide broadcasting is an important function in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET), which attempts to deliver packets from a source node to all other nodes in the network. Broadcasting is often very useful for route discovery, naming, addressing and helping multicast operations in all kinds of networks. For designing broadcast protocols for ad hoc networks, one of the primary goal is to reduce the overhead (redundancy, contention and collision) while reaching all the nodes in network.
Approach: We had discussed many approaches in network wide broadcasting namely flooding, probability based, area based, network knowledge and cluster based broadcasting methods. The implementations and analysis will be made on Linux using the Network Simulator NS2.
Results: In this study, cluster based flooding algorithm had been proposed and its metrics were namely routing load and packet delivery ratio was compared with two common flooding algorithms namely simple flooding and probability based flooding.
Conclusion/Recommendations: It was concluded that simple flooding required each node to rebroadcast all packets. Probability based methods used some basic understanding of network topology, assigning a probability to node to rebroadcast. Cluster broadcasting algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks guaranteed to deliver messages from a source node to all nodes of network.

  S. Vijayaragavan , K. Duraiswamy , B. Kalaavathi and S. Madhavi
  Problem statement: A great deal of excitement has recently propelled Mobile Learning to the forefront of educational technology. The exponential growth of mobile technology in the recent years, increase in the availability of high-bandwidth network, advances in wireless technologies and popularity of handheld devices, have opened up new accessibility opportunities for education. Approach: Virtual class room using MANET had been proposed to enhance the m-Learning opportunities in a residential institution. Results: This environment transferred both large and small volume of data to the particular group members. Generally multicasting supports group oriented computing. Such a group oriented service required a suitable multicast routing protocol. Two standard multicast routing protocols were implemented and analyzed for tree (MAODV) and mesh (ODMRP) based approach. The performances of group learning module of VCR had been analyzed using MAODV and ODMRP routing protocols for parameters such as network traffic, the node speed and the network area. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our results showed that many scenarios in VCR environment, MAODV achieved a higher packet delivery ratio than ODMRP.
  P. MeenakshiDevi , M. Venkatesan and K. Duraiswamy
  Problem statement: In recent years, as digital media are gaining wider popularity, their security related issues are becoming greater concern. Method for authenticating and assuring the integrity of the image is required. Image authentication is possible by embedding a layer of the authentication signature into the digital image using a digital watermark. In some applications tamper localization is also required. Approach: In this study, we proposed a fragile image authentication system with tamper localization in wavelet domain. In this scheme, secret data to be embedded is a logo. Watermark was generated by repeating logo image so that size of watermark matches with the size of HH sub-band of integer wavelet transform. To provide additional level of security, the generated watermark was scrambled using a shared secret key. Integer Haar wavelet transform was applied to obtain wavelet coefficients. Watermark was embedded into the coefficients using odd-even mapping. Results: Experimental results demonstrated that proposed scheme detected and localized tampering at pixel level. Proposed scheme was tested with images of various sizes and tampering of various sizes. It provided good results for tamperings ranges from single pixel to a block of pixels. Conclusion: Watermarking was done in wavelet domain; conventional watermarking attacks were not possible. The resolution of tamper localization was achieved at pixel level. The watermarked image’s quality was still maintained while providing pixel-level tampering accuracy. Proposed scheme can be used in insurance, forensics departments.
  A. Sabari and K. Duraiswamy
  Problem statement: A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is one of the challenging environments for multicast. Since the associated overhead is more, the existing studies illustrate that tree-based and mesh-based on-demand protocols are not the best choice. The costs of the tree under multiple constraints are reduced by the several algorithms which are based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) approach. The traffic-engineering multicast problem is treated as a single-purpose problem with several constraints with the help of these algorithms. The main disadvantage of this approach is the need of a predefined upper bound that can isolate good trees from the final solution. Approach: In order to solve the traffic engineering multicast problem which optimizes many objectives simultaneously this study offers a design on Ant Based Multicast Routing (AMR) algorithm for multicast routing in mobile ad hoc networks. Results: Apart from the existing constraints such as distance, delay and bandwidth, the algorithm calculates one more additional constraint in the cost metric which is the product of average-delay and the maximum depth of the multicast tree. Moreover it also attempts to reduce the combined cost metric. Conclusion: By simulation results, it is clear that our proposed algorithm surpasses all the previous algorithms by developing multicast trees with different sizes.
  S. Gunasekaran and K. Duraiswamy
  Problem statement: Multicasting communication network accepted a single message from an application and delivered copies of the message to multiple recipients at different locations. Recently, there has been an explosion of research literature on multicast communication environment. The objective of this study were to contribute the complexity of supporting current multicast applications, (i) the lack of reliable multicast transport mechanisms at the network level and (ii) the lack of network support for large scale multicast communication. The scaling problem of secure multicast key distribution compounded for the case where sender-specific keys need to be distributed to a group and required for sender-specific authentication of data traffic and minimize control overhead (iii) compare RC4, AES-128,RS(2) and RS(3) computation time of both algorithms. Approach: Algorithms were collected and performed computation time. In general the multicast key distribution scheme implemented for distributing 128 bit session keys. Thus the Maximum Distance Separable Codes (MDS Codes) needed for their encoding and decoding process. In rekeying scheme errors were occurred during over period of time or at a particular point of time and to eliminate all these errors in the level of encryption and decryption mechanism. The MDS codes played an important role in providing security services for multicast, such as traffic, integrity, authentication and confidentiality, is particularly problematic since it requires securely distributing a group (session) key to each of a group’s receivers. Results: First we showed that internet multicasting algorithms based on reverse path forwarding were inherently unreliable and present a source-tree-based reliable multicasting scheme also. The new scheme proposed and used as an inter-gateway protocol and worked on top of the previously developed distance vector and link state internet routing schemes. Next, to support large scale applications, we presented a scheme for partial multicasting and introduced a new network level operation, called gather. The partial multicasting mechanism allowed messages to be delivered to subsets of multicast destinations, while the gather operation aids gateways in selectively suppressing redundant messages, thus reducing the message complexity. Conclusion: Hence the findings suggested the control overhead reasonably minimized and using simulations, we investigated the efficiency of our schemes in supporting scalable application domain based multicast communication.
  R. Punithavathi and K. Duraiswamy
  Problem statement: Most of the information retrieval systems used only client-server architectures. The client-server model though powerful, had some limitations. In mobile computing environment which has both wired network and wireless networks with limited communication capabilities, the performance of the system was very low. Approach: Mobile agents are considered a suitable technology to develop applications such as information retrieval system for mobile computing environment. Mobile agents are autonomous and dynamic entities that can migrate between various nodes in the network. They offer many advantages over traditional design methodologies like: reduction in network load, overcoming network latency and disconnected operations. Since the mobile agents do not need continuous communication with the mobile host, they are not affected by the sudden disconnection of wireless network and the situation of turning mobile host off for power saving. In order to get the complete benefit of mobile agent system, the system must be fault tolerant. In the context of mobile agents, fault-tolerance prevents a partial or complete loss of the agent. Results: Our system in mobile computing environment ensured that the agent arrived at its destination with result and performance of the system improved by the way of reduction in the response time. And also, the system allowed sending more requests by the way of creating many mobile agents without affecting the performance. Conclusion: Our research compared the performance of client-server architecture and fault tolerant mobile agent information retrieval system and proved that our system solved the limitations faced by the client server architecture. The system can also be extended to adhoc networks.
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